Biofilm: a platform for the evaluation of antimicrobial treatments and prevention against Mycoplasma bovis infection

Main Article Content

Gabriel Alexis SP. Tubalinal
Gemerlyn G. Garcia
Claro N. Mingala


Mycoplasma bovis is an important pathogen in large ruminants that causes various clinical pathologies with great economic impact. Though mycoplasmas were thought to have gone reductive evolution that led to the loss of genetic materials leading to the marked absence of cell wall and canonical virulence factors, adaptation made by some M. bovis isolates include production of biofilms to survive, evade host immune response, persists in a biotic environment and may mount related responses that render chemotherapy ineffective. In this review, topics on biofilms commonly produced by M. bovis isolates were discussed to view its pathogenicity. Reports that describe the involvement of variable surface antigensin biofilm production of M. bovis are also presented. This information invites interest on biofilms anchored on studies where it can be developed to be utilized as platforms for the evaluation of antimicrobial treatments and for the identification of a preventive and control strategy against Mycoplasma bovis infection.

Article Details

How to Cite
SP. Tubalinal, G. A., G. Garcia, G., & N. Mingala, C. (2023). Biofilm: a platform for the evaluation of antimicrobial treatments and prevention against Mycoplasma bovis infection: Veterinary Integrative Sciences, 21(2), 567–576. Retrieved from
Review Article


Bennett, R.H., Jasper, D.E., 1980. Bovine mycoplasmal mastitis from intramammary inoculations of small numbers of Mycoplasma bovis: Local and systemic antibody response. Am. J. Vet. Res. 41, 889-892.

Burki, S., Frey, J., Pilo, P., 2015. Virulence, persistence and dissemination of Mycoplasma bovis. Vet. Microbiol. 179(1-2), 15-22.

Butler, J.A., Sickles, S.A., Johanns, C.J., Rosenbusch, R.F., 2000. Pasteurization of discard mycoplasma mastitic milk used to feed calves: thermal effects on various mycoplasma. J. Dairy Sci. 83, 2285-2288.

Caswell, J.L., Archambault, M., 2008. Mycoplasma bovispneumonia in cattle. Anim. Health Res. Rev. 8(2), 161-186.

Caswell, J.L., Bateman, K.G., Cai, H.Y., Castillo-Alcala, F., 2010. Mycoplasma bovis in respiratory disease of feedlot cattle. Vet. Clin. North Am. Food Anim. Pract. 26(2), 365-79.

Chen, S., Hao, H., Zhao, P., Ji, W., Mingxia, L., Liu, Y., Chu, Y., 2018. Differential immunoreactivity to bovine convalescent serum between Mycoplasma bovis biofilms and planktonic cells revealed by comparative immunoproteomic analysis.Front. Microbiol. 9, 379.

Flemming, H.C., Wingender, J., 2010. The biofilm matrix. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 8, 623-633.

Godden, S., Bey, R., Lorch, K., Fransworth, R., Rapnicki, P., 2008. Ability of organic and inorganic bedding materials to promote growth of environmental bacteria. J. Dairy Sci. 91, 151-159.

Gonzalez, R.N., Sears, P.M., Merrill, R.A., Hayes, G.L., 1992. Mastitis due to mycoplasma in the state of New York during the period 1972-1990. Cornell Vet. 82, 29-40.

Hirose, K., Kobayashi, H., Ito, N., Kawasaki, Y., Zako, M., Kotani, K., Ogawa, H., Sato, H.,2003. Isolation of Mycoplasmas from nasal swab of calves affected with respiratory diseases and antimicrobial susceptibility of their isolates. J. Vet. Med. B. Infect. Dis.Vet. Public Health. 50(7), 347-351.

Jasper, D.E., Al-Aubaidi, J., Fabricant, J., 1974. Epidemiological observations on mycoplasma mastitis. Cornell Vet. 64, 407-415.

Justice-Allen, A., Trujillo, J., Corbett, R., Harding, R., Goodell, G., Wilson, D., 2009.Survival and replication of Mycoplasma species in recycled bedding sand and association with mastitis on dairy farms in Utah. J. Dairy Sci. 93, 192-202.

Khan, F.A., Rasheed, M.A., Faisal, M., Menghwar, H., Zubair, M., Sadique, U., Chen, H.,Guo, A., 2017. Proteomics analysis and its role in elucidation of functionally significant proteins in Mycoplasma bovis. Microb. Pathog. 111, 50-59.

Maunsell, F.P., Chase, C., 2019. Mycoplasma bovis interactions with the immune system and failure to generate an effective immune response. Vet. Clin. Food Anim. Pract. 35,471-483.

McAuliffe, L., Ellis, R.J., Miles, K., Ayling, R.D., Nicholas, R.A.J., 2006. Biofilm formation by mycoplasma species and its role in environmental persistence and survival.Microbiol. 152, 913-922.

Nagatomo, H., Takegahara, Y., Sonoda, T., Yamaguchi, A., Uemura, R., Hagiwara, S.,Seuyoshi, M., 2001. Comparative studies of the persistence of animal mycoplasmas under different environmental conditions. Vet. Microbiol. 82, 223-232.

Nicholas, R.A.J., Ayling, R.D., McAuliffe, L., 2008. Bovine respiratory disease. In:Mycoplasma disease of ruminants. CABI, United Kingdom, pp. 133-154.

Nicholas, R.A.J., 2010. The other M. bovis: Mycoplasma bovis. UK. Vet. Livest. 15(5),32-34.

Perez-Casal, J., 2020. Pathogenesis and virulence of Mycoplasma bovis. Vet. Clin. North Am. Food Anim. Pract. 36(2), 269-278.

Pfutzner, H., 1984. The tenacity of Mycoplasma bovis. Zentralbl. Bakteriol. Mikrobiol. Hyg. A. 258(1), 38-41.

Razin, S., Yogev, D., Naot, Y., 1998. Molecular biology and pathogenicity of mycoplasmas.Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 62, 1094-1156.

Rottem, S., 2003. Interaction of mycoplasmas with host cells. Physiol. Rev. 83(2), 417-432.

Ruffo, G., Nani, S.P., Podesta, A., 1969. Survival of Mycoplasma agalactiae var. bovis in several materials and at different temperatures. Arch. Vet. Ital. 20, 459-464.

Sachse, K., Grajetzki, C., Rosengarten, R., Hanel, I., Heller, M., Pfutzner, H., 1996. Mechanisms and factors involved in Mycoplasma bovis adhesion to host cells.Zentralbl. Bakteriol. 284(1), 80-92.

Soenhnlen, M.K., Aydin, A., Murthy, K.S., Lengerich, E.J., Hattel, A.L., Houser, B.A.,Fenton, G.D., Lysczek, H.R., Burns, C.M., Townsend, A.M., Brooks, J.W.,Wolfgang, D.R., Jayarao, B.M., 2011. Epidemiology of Mycoplasma bovis in Pennsylvania veal calves. J. Dairy. Sci. 95, 247-254.

Thomas, A., Sachse, K., Dizier, I., Grajetzki, C., Farnir, F., Mainil, J.G., Linden, A., 2003a. Adherence to various host cell lines of Mycoplasma bovis strains differing in pathogenic and cultural features. Vet. Microbiol. 91(2-3), 101-113.

Thomas, A., Sachse, K., Farnir, F., Dizier, I., Mainil, J., Linden, A., 2003b. Adherence of Mycoplasma bovis to bovine bronchial epithelial cells. Microb. Pathog. 34(3), 141-148.

Wilson, D.J., Skirpstunas, R.T., Trujillo, J.D., Cavander, K.B., Bagley, C.V., Harding, R.,2007. Unusual history and initial clinical presentation of mycoplasma mastitis and arthritis in a closed commercial dairy herd. J. Am. Vet. Med. Asso. 230, 1519-1523.

Yiwen, C., Yueyue, W., Lianmei, Q., Cuiming, Z., Xiaoxing, Y., 2021. Infections strategies of mycoplasmas: Unravelling the panoply of virulence factors. Virulence. 12(1),788-817.

Zou, X., Li, Y., Wang, Y., Zhou, Y., Liu, Y.,Xing, J., 2013. Molecular cloning and characterization of a surface-localized adhesion protein in Mycoplasma bovis Hubei-1 strain. PLoS One. 8(7), e69644.