Caprine Roundworm Nematode Resistance to Macrocyclic Lactones in Northeastern Thailand

Main Article Content

Sarinya Rerkyusuke
Pichayawadee Lamul
Chanoknan Thipphayathon
Kamonwan Kanawan
Sarthorn Porntrakulpipat


Roundworm nematodes are a significant problem in goat meat farming worldwide.  These parasites can cause production losses, reduce feed efficiency and compromise animal health and welfare. Macrocyclic lactones (MLs) are common anthelmintic drugs to treat roundworm nematode infection in livestock. The objective of study was to detect roundworm resistance to MLs in meat goats in Northeast Thailand. One hundred and nineteen goats from 6 herds were studied from June to December 2022. Each herd was randomly allocated to control (n=21), epinomectin (n=34), ivermectin (n=40) and moxidectin (n=24) groups. Anthelmintic resistance (AR) was assessed based on the Fecal Egg Count Reduction Test (FECRT) and larva culture at pre-treatment (D0) and 14 days post-treatment (D14). Prevalence of Strongyle nematodes and Trichuris spp. infection was 100% (6/6 herd), and 66.7% (4/6 herd), respectively. The number of Strongyle eggs was significantly reduced in the eprinomectin group (p < 0.01). In contrast, the ivermectin group was significantly increased (p < 0.01). The prevalence of ML resistance of Strongyle nematodes and Trichuris spp. was 83.3% (5/6 herd) and 25.0% (1/4 herd), respectively. The dominant larva was Haemonchus contortus at pre- and post-treatment in every herd. This study demonstrated the presence of ML resistant Strongyle nematodes as H. contortus and Trichuris spp. in this area. To reduce ML resistance it can be useful to use drugs in combination or rotate MLs with other classes of anthelmintics or in targeted treatment programs and integrated parasite management strategies. Consequently, the efficacy of anthelmintic drugs in small ruminants needs to be monitored and surveilled in this area. 

Article Details

How to Cite
Rerkyusuke, S., Lamul, P. ., Thipphayathon, C. ., Kanawan, K. ., & Porntrakulpipat, S. . (2023). Caprine Roundworm Nematode Resistance to Macrocyclic Lactones in Northeastern Thailand: Veterinary Integrative Sciences, 21(2), 623–634. Retrieved from
Research Articles


Alvarez, L., Suarez, G., Ceballos, L., Moreno, L., Canton, C., Lifschitz, A., Maté, L., Ballent,M., Virkel, G., Lanusse. C., 2015. Integrated assessment of ivermectin pharmacokinetics, efficacy against resistant H. contortus and P-glycoprotein expression in lambs treated at three different dosage levels. Vet. Parasitol. 210, 53-63.

Atif, M., Estrada-Mondragon, A., Nguyen, Bindi, Lynch, J.W., Keramidas, A., 2017. Effects of glutamate and ivermectin on single glutamate-gated chloride channels of the parasitic nematode H. contortus. Plos. Pathog. 13(10), e1006663.

Aunpromma, S., 2013. Flatworm and diagnosis of helminthiasis in animals. Khon Kaen University Publications, Khon Kaen, pp. 223-239. (In Thai)

Baynes, R.E., Payne, M., Martin-Jimenez, T., Abdullah, A.R., Anderson, K.L., Webb, A.I.,Craigmill, A., Riviere. J.E., 2000. Extra-label use of ivermectin and moxidectin in food animals. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 217(5), 668-671.

Bollinger, J., Hertzberg, H., Hässig, M., Knubben-Schweizer, G., 2016. “Targeted” and “targeted selective treatments” in goats: Evaluation of several decision criteria and development of a practical decision key. Schweiz. Arch. Tierheilkd. 158(8), 557-564.

(In German)

Bowman, D.D., 2009. Georgis’ parasitology for veterinarians, 9th edition. Elsevier, St Louis,pp.464.

Brown, D.D.R., Siddiqui, S.Z., Kaji, M.D., Forrester, S.G., 2012. Pharmacological characterization of the Haemonchus contortus GABA-gated chloride channel, Hco-UNC-49: Modulation by macrocyclic lactone anthelmintics and a receptor for piperazine. Vet. Parasitol. 185, 201-209.

Brummaier, T., Archasuksan, L., Watthanakulpanich, D., Paris, D.H., Utzinger, J., McGready,R., Proux, S., Nosten, F., 2021. Improved Detection of Intestinal Helminth Infections with a Formalin Ethyl-Acetate-Based Concentration Technique Compared to a Crude

Formalin Concentration Technique. Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 6, 6020051.

Chaisanabunthid, V., Kengkoom, K., Ratanasak, W., Buripakdi Lawson, D., 2003. The efficacy of Ivermectin (IVOMEC®) against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep in Thailand.Thai J. Vet. Med. 33(3), 59-64. (In Thai).

Coles, G.C., Jackson, F., Pomroy, W.E., Prichard, R.K., von Samson-Himmelstjerna, G.,Silvestre, A., Taylor, M.A., Vercruysse, J., 2006. The detection of anthelmintic resistance in nematodes of veterinary importance. Vet. Parasito. 136, 167-185.

Gilleard, J.S., 2013. Haemonchus contortus as a paradigm and model to study anthelmintic drug resistance. Parasito. 140, 1506-1522.

Godoy, P., Che, H., Beech, R.N., Prichard, R.K., 2016. Characterisation of P-glycoprotein-9.1 in Haemonchus contortus. Parasit. Vectors. 9, 52.

Hinney, B., Wiedermann, S., Kaiser, W., Krücken, J., Joachim, A., 2022. Eprinomectin and moxidectin resistance of trichostrongyloids on a goat farm in Austria. Pathogens.11(5), 498.

ICT DLD, 2018-2023. Goat population in Northeast Thailand. Available from:

ICT DLD, 2022. Goat population in Thailand (divided into provinces). Available from:

Jouffroy, S., Bordes, L., Grisez, C., Sutra, J.F., Cazajous, T., Lafon, J., Dumont, N., Chastel,M.,Vial-Novella, C., Achard, D., Karembe, H., Devaux, M., Abbadie, M., Delmas, C., Lespine, A., Jacquiet, P., 2023. First report of eprinomectin-resistant isolates of Haemonchus contortus in 5 dairy sheep farms from the Pyrénées Atlantiques département in France. Parasitology. 20, 1-9.

Learmount, J., Gettinby, G., Boughtflower, V., Stephens, N., Hartley, K., Allanson, P.,Gutierrez, A.B., Perez, D., Taylor, M., 2015. Evaluation of ‘best practice’ (SCOPS) guidelines for nematode control on commercial sheep farms in England and Wales.Vet. Parasitol. 207, 259–265.

McKenna, P.B., 2006. Further comparison of faecal egg count reduction test procedures: sensitivity and specificity. N. Z. Vet. J. 54(6), 365-366.

Mickiewicz, M., Czopowicz, M., Moroz, A., Potărniche, A.V., Szaluś-Jordanow, O., Spinu,M., Górski, P., Markowska-Daniel, I., Várady, M., Kaba, J., 2021. Prevalence of anthelmintic resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes in Polish goat herds assessed by the larval development test. BMC. Vet. Res. 17, 19.

Paraud, C., Marcotty, T., Lespine, A., Sutra, J.F., Pors, I., Devos, I., 2016. Cross-resistance to moxidectin and ivermectin on a meat sheep farm in France. Vet. Parasito. 226, 88-92.

Prichard, R.K., Geary, T.G., 2019. Perspectives on the utility of moxidectin for the control of parasitic nematodes in the face of developing anthelmintic resistance. Int. J. Parasitol. Drugs. Drug. Resist. 10, 69-83.

Ratanapob, N., Thuamsuwan, N., Thongyuan, S., 2022. Anthelmintic resistance status of goat gastrointestinal nematodes in Sing Buri Province, Thailand. Vet. World. 15(1), 83-90.

Smith, M.C., Sherman, D.M., 2009. Goat medicine, 2nd edition. Wiley-Blackwell, New Jersey,pp. 441-500.

Taylor, M.A., Coop, R.L., Wall, R.L., 2016. Veterinary Parasitology, 4th edition., Willey Blackwell, New Delhi, pp. 1006.

Tuersong, W., Zhou, C., Wu, S., Qin, P., Wang, C., Di, W., Liu, L., Liu, H., Hu, M., 2022.Comparative analysis on transcriptomics of ivermectin resistant and susceptible strains of Haemonchus contortus. Parasit. Vectors. 15, 159.

Upper Northeastern Meteorological Center, 2022. Thai Meteorological Department data. Available from:

Van Wyk, J.A., Bath, G.F., 2002. The FAMACHA system for managing haemonchosis in sheep and goats by clinically identifying individual animals for treatment. Vet. Res. 33(5),509-529.

Van Wyk, J.A., Cabaret, J., Michael, L.M., 2004. Morphological identification of nematode larvae of small ruminants and cattle simplified. Vet. Parasitol. 4, 277-306.

Van Wyk, J.A., Hoste, H., Kaplan, R.M., Besier, R.B., 2006. Targeted selective treatment for worm management-how do we sell rational programs to farmers?. Vet. Parasitol.139(4), 336-346.

Veale, P.I., 2002. Resistance to macrocyclic lactones in nematodes of goats. Aust. Vet. J. 80(5),303-304.

Vickers, M., Venning, M., McKenna, P.B., Mariadass, B., 2001. Resistance to macrocyclic lactone anthelmintics by Haemonchus contortus and Ostertagia circumcincta in sheep in New Zealand. N.Z. Vet. J. 49(3), 101-105.

Voigt, K., Geiger, M., Jäger, M.C., Knubben-Schweizer, G., Strube, C., Zablotski, Y., 2022. Effectiveness of anthelmintic treatments in small ruminants in Germany. Animals.12, 1501.

Wondimu, A., Bayu, Y., 2022. Anthelmintic drug resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes of naturally infected goats in Haramaya, Ethiopia. J. Parasito. Res. 2022, 4025902.