Evaluation of Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) and scratching behavior in BALB/c mice treated with house dust mite immunotherapy https://doi.org/10.12982/VIS.2024.010

Main Article Content

Sylvia Anggraeni
Dinar Chieko Triesayuningtyas
Anang Endaryanto
Cita Rosita Sigit Prakoeswa


Allergen specific immunotherapy controls the reaction and builds immunological tolerance by giving an allergen in escalating doses. Research on immunotherapy in atopic dermatitis (AD) mouse model offers a new perspective on the approach of treatment in AD. This was an experimental study of 33 male BALB/c mice, 6-8 weeks old, divided into 3 groups (control, AD model, and house dust mite/HDM immunotherapy). The mice received spray and patch containing allergen extract of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. Immunotherapy was injected subcutaneously in increasing doses. The evaluation of SCORAD and scratching behavior were observed at the end of the treatment on day 93. The SCORAD of the model group that received HDM allergen had a mean of 1.27 ± 0.467 and the immunotherapy group had a mean of 0.36 ± 0.505. There were significant differences between the groups. The model group had a mean of 5.18 ± 4.119 and the immunotherapy group had mean of 1.55 ± 1.293. The statistical analysis showed that there were significant differences between control group and model group, as well as model group and immunotherapy group. Interobserver agreement was assessed and showed substantial agreement for SCORAD (ĸ = 0.613 and p < 0.001) and scratching evaluation (ĸ = 0.714 and p < 0.001). House dust mite immunotherapy significantly reduced SCORAD and scratching behavior in BALB/c mice compared to placebo groups. 

Article Details

How to Cite
Anggraeni, S., Triesayuningtyas, D. C., Endaryanto, A., & Prakoeswa, C. R. S. (2023). Evaluation of Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) and scratching behavior in BALB/c mice treated with house dust mite immunotherapy: https://doi.org/10.12982/VIS.2024.010. Veterinary Integrative Sciences, 22(1), 121–129. Retrieved from https://he02.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/vis/article/view/262929
Research Articles


Alvaro-Lozano, M., Akdis, C.A., Akdis, M., Alviani, C., Angier, E., Arasi, S., Arzt-Gradwohl, L., Barber, D., Bazire, R., Cavkaytar, O., Comberiati, P., Dramburg,S., Durham, S.R., Eifan, A.O., Forchert, L., Halken, S., Kirtland, M., Kucuksezer,U.C., Layhadi, J.A., Matricardi, P.M., Muraro, A., Ozdemir, C., Pajno, G.B., Pfaar,O., Potapova, E., Riggioni, C., Roberts, G., Rodríguez del Río, P., Shamji, M.H.,Sturm, G.J., Vazquez-Ortiz, M., 2020. Allergen immunotherapy in children user’sguide. Pediatr. Allergy. Immunol. 31, 1-101.

Anggraeni, S., Paramitha, B.A., Triadi Nugroho, W., Umborowati, M.A., Damayanti,Endaryanto, A., Rosita Sigit Prakoeswa, C., 2022. Clinical relevance of house dust mites as causative factor of atopic dermatitis in Surabaya-Indonesia. In Proceedings

of the 5th international conference on sustainable innovation, pp. 41-45.

Bae, J.M., Choi, Y.Y., Park, C.O., Chung, K.Y., Lee, K.H., 2013. Efficacy of allergen-specific immunotherapy for atopic dermatitis: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J. Allergy. Clin. Immunol. 132, 110-117.

Bumbacea, R., Corcea, S., Ali, S., Dinica, L., Fanfaret, I., Boda, D., 2020. Mite allergy and atopic dermatitis: is there a clear link? (Review). Exp. Ther. Med. 20, 3554-3560.

Caminiti, L., Panasiti, I., Landi, M., de Filippo, M., Olcese, R., Ciprandi, G., Vernich, M.,Carelli, F., Votto, M., Barberi, S., 2020. Allergen immunotherapy in atopic dermatitis: Light and shadow in children. Pediatr. Allergy. Immunol. 31, 46-48.

Endaryanto, A., 2019. Effects of atopic dermatitis, urticaria and gastrointestinal disorders as comorbidity in clinical improvement and parent satisfaction in children with moderate-persistent airway symptoms of allergy who get house dust allergen immunotherapy. Berk. Ilmu. Kesehat. Kulit. Kelamin. 31, 111-122.

Endaryanto, A., Nugraha, R.A., 2021. Indonesia‐based study of the clinical and cost‐saving benefits of subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy for children with allergic rhinitis in private practice. Cells. 10, 1841.

Estanislau, C., Veloso, A.W.N., Filgueiras, G.B., Maio, T.P., Dal-Cól, M.L.C., Cunha, D.C.,Klein, R., Carmona, L.F., Fernández-Teruel, A., 2019. Rat self-grooming and its relationships with anxiety, dearousal and perseveration: Evidence for a selfgrooming

trait. Physiol. Behav. 209, 112585.

Giannetti, A., Ricci, G., Procaccianti, M., Santoro, A., Caffarelli, C., 2020. Safety, efficacy,and preventive role of subcutaneous and sublingual allergen immunotherapy for the treatment of pediatric asthma. J. Asthma. Allergy. 13, 575-587.

Lee, K.S., Jeong, E.S., Heo, S.H., Seo, J.H., Jeong, D.G., Choi, Y.K., 2010. A novel model for human atopic dermatitis: application of repeated DNCB Patch in BALB/c Mice,in comparison with NC/Nga mice. Lab. Anim. Res. 26, 95-102.

Martel, B.C., Lovato, P., Bäumer, W., Olivry, T., 2017. translational animal models of atopic dermatitis for preclinical studies. Yale. J. Biol. Med. 90, 389–402.

Maze Engineers, 2019. Mouse Ethogram: Self-Grooming Behavior. Available online: https://conductscience.com/maze/mouse-ethogram-self-grooming-behavior/ (Accessed on 30 May, 2022).

Miller, J.D., 2019. The role of dust mites in allergy. Clin. Rev. Allergy. Immunol. 57, 312-329.Nugroho, W.T., Ervianti, E., Zulkarnain, I., Nurul Hidayati, A., Damayanti, Utomo, B.,Rosita Sigit Prakoeswa, C., 2022. Characteristics of atopic dermatitis patients who underwent skin prick test. Berk. Ilmu. Kesehat. Kulit. Kelamin. 34, 11-14.

Putera, A.M., Hikmah, Z., Endaryanto, A., Irwanto, Maramis, M.M., 2021. The role of house dust mite immunotherapy in Indonesian children with chronic rhinosinusitis llergy: A randomized control trial. Heliyon. 7, e06510.

Ridolo, E., Martignago, I., Riario-Sforza, G.G., Incorvaia, C., 2017. Allergen immunotherapy in atopic dermatitis. Expert. Rev. Clin. Immunol. 14, 61–68.

Sarwar, M., 2020. House dust mites: ecology, biology, prevalence, epidemiology and elimination. In: Pacheco, G.A.B., Kamboh, A.A. (Eds.), Parasitology and microbiology research. IntechOpen, London.

Shershakova, N., Bashkatova, E., Babakhin, A., Andreev, S., Nikonova, A., Shilovsky, I.,Kamyshnikov, O., Buzuk, A., Elisyutina, O., Fedenko, E., Khaitov, M., 2015. Allergen-specific immunotherapy with monomeric allergoid in a mouse model of atopic dermatitis. PLoS One. 10, e0135070.

Shin, J.U., Kim, S.H., Noh, J.Y., Kim, J.H., Kim, H.R., Jeong, K.Y., Park, K.H., Lee, J., Chu,H., Lee, J.H., Yong, T.S., Park, J.W., Lee, K.H., 2018. Allergen-specific immunotherapy induces regulatory T cells in an atopic dermatitis mouse model.Allergy. 73, 1801-1811.

Sugita, K., Akdis, C.A., 2020. Recent developments and advances in atopic dermatitis and food allergy. Allergol. Int. 69, 204-214.

Tam, H.H., Calderon, M.A., Manikam, L., Nankervis, H., Núñez, I.G., Williams, H.C.,Durham, S.R., Boyle, R.J., 2016. Specific allergen immunotherapy for the treatment of atopic eczema: A cochrane systematic review. Allergy. 71(9), 1345-1356.

Tang, R. bin, 2020. House dust mite-specific immunotherapy alters the natural course of atopic March. J. Chin. Med. Assoc. 83, 109-112.

Tham, E.H., Lee, A.J., van Bever, H., 2016. Aeroallergen sensitization and allergic disease phenotypes in Asia. Asian. Pac. J. Allergy. Immunol. 34, 181-189.

Warrens, M.J., 2015. Five ways to look at Cohen’s Kappa. J. psychol. psychother. 5, 1000197.Wimalasena, N.K., Milner, G., Silva, R., Vuong, C., Zhang, Z., Bautista, D.M., Woolf, C.J.,2021. Dissecting the precise nature of itch-evoked scratching. Neuron. 109, 3075-3087.