A Case report of reproductive failure and dermatitis occurred by PCV3 and Mycoplasma suis in sows at a breeding farm https://doi.org/10.12982/VIS.2024.067

Main Article Content

Dung Thi Thuy Do
Tram Thi Ngoc Ngo
Nam Minh Nguyen
Nga Thi To Bui
Duy Tien Do


Reproductive disorders in sows pose significant economic challenges to the swine industry worldwide. In this study, we investigated the presence of porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3) and Mycoplasma suis (M. suis) in cases of reproductive failure at a breeding sow farm in Vietnam. PCR and RT-PCR assays were performed to detect related pathogens on samples collected from sows with reproductive disorders, and phylogenetic analysis was conducted to characterize the PCV3 strains. Additionally, the incidence and shedding patterns of PCV3 were assessed. Results revealed a high frequency of PCV3 and M. suis infections in sows with reproductive disorders (54.5% and 45.4% respectively), while other pathogens were not detected. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the PCV3 strains belonged to the PCV3b subtype. The findings suggest that PCV3 may play a significant role in causing reproductive problems in sows and highlight the potential impact of early PCV3 infection on piglets during later production stages.


Article Details

How to Cite
Do, D. T. T., Ngo, T. T. N., Nguyen, N. M., Bui, N. T. T., & Duy Tien Do. (2024). A Case report of reproductive failure and dermatitis occurred by PCV3 and Mycoplasma suis in sows at a breeding farm: https://doi.org/10.12982/VIS.2024.067. Veterinary Integrative Sciences, 22(3), 993–1004. Retrieved from https://he02.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/vis/article/view/264775
Case Report


Alomar, J., Saporiti, V., Pérez, M., Gonçalvez, D., Sibila, M., Segalés, J., 2021. Multisystemic lymphoplasmacytic inflammation associated with PCV-3 in wasting pigs. Transbound Emerg Dis 68, 2969-2974.

Arruda, B., Piñeyro, P., Derscheid, R., Hause, B., Byers, E., Dion, K., Long, D., Sievers, C., Tangen, J., Williams, T., Schwartz, K., 2019. PCV3-associated disease in the United States swine herd. Emerg Microbes Infect 8, 684-698.

Biondo, A.W., Santos, A.P.D., Guimarães, A.M.S., Vieira, R.F.D.C., Vidotto, O., Macieira, D.D.B., Almosny, N.R.P., Molento, M.B., Timenetsky, J., Morais, H.A.D., 2009. A review of the occurrence of hemoplasmas (hemotrophic mycoplasmas) in Brazil. Revista brasileira de parasitologia veterinária 18, 1-7.

Brissonnier, M., Normand, V., Lebret, A., Moalic, P.Y., Guyomard, A.S., Bachy, V., Berton, P., Auvigne, V., Bouchet, F., & Boulbria, G. (2020). Frequency of infection with Mycoplasma suis in gestating sows using qPCR on ten commercial French herds, and impact of the infection on clinical, haematological and biochemical parameters. Porcine Health Management, 6, 13. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40813-020-00152-4

Brownback, A., 1981. Eperythrozoonosis as a cause of infertility in swine. Veterinary Medicine, Small Animal Clinician: VM, SAC, 76(3), 375–378.

Brunborg, I.M., Jonassen, C.M., Moldal, T., Bratberg, B., Lium, B., Koenen, F., Schönheit, J., 2007. Association of myocarditis with high viral load of porcine circovirus type 2 in several tissues in cases of fetal death and high mortality in piglets. A case study. J Vet Diagn Invest 19, 368-375.

Chen, G. H., Mai, K. J., Zhou, L., Wu, R. T., Tang, X. Y., Wu, J. L., He, L. L., Lan, T., Xie, Q. M., Sun, Y., & Ma, J. Y., 2017. Detection and genome sequencing of porcine circovirus 3 in neonatal pigs with congenital tremors in South China. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 64(6), 1650–1654. https://doi.org/10.1111/tbed.12702

Dinh, P.X., Nguyen, M.N., Nguyen, H.T., Tran, V.H., Tran, Q.D., Dang, K.H., Vo, D.T., Le, H.T., Nguyen, N.T.T., Nguyen, T.T., 2021. Porcine circovirus genotypes and their copathogens in pigs with respiratory disease in southern provinces of Vietnam. Archives of Virology 166, 403-411.

Do, D.T., Park, C., Choi, K., Jeong, J., Nguyen, T.T., Le, D.T., Vo, K.M., Chae, C., 2016. Nucleotide sequence analysis of Vietnamese highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus from 2013 to 2014 based on the NSP2 and ORF5 coding regions. Arch Virol 161, 669-675.

Duy, D.T., Hien, N.T., Phat, D.X., Nha, N.V., Toan, N.T., 2019. Detection of Porcine circovirus type 3 and some other pathogens in respiratory disease complex. Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology, 26(6), 24-33.

Franzo, G., Grassi, L., Tucciarone, C.M., Drigo, M., Martini, M., Pasotto, D., Mondin, A., Menandro, M.L., 2019. A wild circulation: High presence of Porcine circovirus 3 in different mammalian wild hosts and ticks. Transbound Emerg Dis 66, 1548-1557.

Franzo, G., Legnardi, M., Hjulsager, C.K., Klaumann, F., Larsen, L.E., Segales, J., Drigo, M., 2018. Full-genome sequencing of porcine circovirus 3 field strains from Denmark, Italy and Spain demonstrates a high within-Europe genetic heterogeneity. Transbound Emerg Dis 65, 602-606.

Fu, X., Fang, B., Ma, J., Liu, Y., Bu, D., Zhou, P., Wang, H., Jia, K., Zhang, G., 2018. Insights into the epidemic characteristics and evolutionary history of the novel porcine circovirus type 3 in southern China. Transbound Emerg Dis 65, e296-e303.

Fu, Y., Shi, T., Xu, L., Wei, W., Lu, F., Zhang, X., Yuan, X., Li, J., Lv, J., Fang, W., 2017. Identification of a novel Hemoplasma species from pigs in Zhejiang province, China. J Vet Med Sci 79, 864-870.

Fux, R., Söckler, C., Link, E.K., Renken, C., Krejci, R., Sutter, G., Ritzmann, M., Eddicks, M., 2018. Full genome characterization of porcine circovirus type 3 isolates reveals the existence of two distinct groups of virus strains. Virol J 15, 25.

Henderson, J.P., O’Hagan, J., Hawe, S.M., Pratt, M.C., 1997. Anaemia and low viability in piglets infected with Eperythrozoon suis. The Veterinary Record, 140(6), 144-146.

Hermann, J.R., Muñoz-Zanzi, C.A., Roof, M.B., Burkhart, K., Zimmerman, J.J., 2005. Probability of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus infection as a function of exposure route and dose. Vet Microbiol 110, 7-16.

Hoelzle, L.E., 2008. Haemotrophic mycoplasmas: recent advances in Mycoplasma suis. Vet Microbiol 130, 215-226.

Hoelzle, L.E., Adelt, D., Hoelzle, K., Heinritzi, K., Wittenbrink, M.M., 2003. Development of a diagnostic PCR assay based on novel DNA sequences for the detection of Mycoplasma suis (Eperythrozoon suis) in porcine blood. Veterinary microbiology 93, 185-196.

Hoelzle, L.E., Zeder, M., Felder, K.M., Hoelzle, K., 2014. Pathobiology of Mycoplasma suis. Vet J 202, 20-25.

Igriczi, B., Dénes, L., Biksi, I., Albert, E., Révész, T., Balka, G., 2022. High Prevalence of Porcine Circovirus 3 in Hungarian Pig Herds: Results of a Systematic Sampling Protocol. Viruses 14.

Kedkovid, R., Woonwong, Y., Arunorat, J., Sirisereewan, C., Sangpratum, N., Lumyai, M., Kesdangsakonwut, S., Teankum, K., Jittimanee, S., Thanawongnuwech, R., 2018. Porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3) infection in grower pigs from a Thai farm suffering from porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). Veterinary Microbiology 215, 71-76.

King, D.P., Reid, S.M., Hutchings, G.H., Grierson, S.S., Wilkinson, P.J., Dixon, L.K., Bastos, A.D.S., Drew, T.W., 2003. Development of a TaqMan PCR assay with internal amplification control for the detection of African swine fever virus. Journal of Virological Methods, 107(1), 53-61.

Ku, X., Chen, F., Li, P., Wang, Y., Yu, X., Fan, S., Qian, P., Wu, M., He, Q., 2017. Identification and genetic characterization of porcine circovirus type 3 in China. Transbound Emerg Dis 64, 703-708.

Li, G., He, W., Zhu, H., Bi, Y., Wang, R., Xing, G., Zhang, C., Zhou, J., Yuen, K.Y., Gao, G.F., Su, S., 2018. Origin, Genetic Diversity, and Evolutionary Dynamics of Novel Porcine Circovirus 3. Adv Sci (Weinh) 5, 1800275.

Lowings, P., Ibata, G., Needham, J., Paton, D., 1996. Classical swine fever virus diversity and evolution. Journal of General Virology 77, 1311-1321.

Messick, J.B., 2004. Hemotrophic mycoplasmas (hemoplasmas): A review and new insights into pathogenic potential. Veterinary Clinical Pathology, 33(1), 2-13.

Madson, D.M., Patterson, A.R., Ramamoorthy, S., Pal, N., Meng, X.J., Opriessnig, T., 2009. Effect of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccination of the dam on PCV2 replication in utero. Clin Vaccine Immunol 16, 830-834.

Molossi, F.A., de Almeida, B.A., de Cecco, B.S., da Silva, M.S., Mósena, A.C.S., Brandalise, L., Simão, G.M.R., Canal, C.W., Vanucci, F., Pavarini, S.P., Driemeier, D., 2022. A putative PCV3-associated disease in piglets from Southern Brazil. Braz J Microbiol 53, 491-498.

Mora-Díaz, J., Piñeyro, P., Shen, H., Schwartz, K., Vannucci, F., Li, G., Arruda, B., Giménez-Lirola, L., 2020. Isolation of PCV3 from Perinatal and Reproductive Cases of PCV3-Associated Disease and In Vivo Characterization of PCV3 Replication in CD/CD Growing Pigs. Viruses 12.

Neimark, H., Johansson, K.E., Rikihisa, Y., Tully, J.G., 2001. Proposal to transfer some members of the genera Haemobartonella and Eperythrozoon to the genus Mycoplasma with descriptions of 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemofelis', 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemomuris', 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemosuis' and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma wenyonii'. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51, 891-899.

Nguyen, N.H., Do Tien, D., Nguyen, T.Q., Nguyen, T.T., Nguyen, M.N., 2021. Identification and whole-genome characterization of a novel Porcine Circovirus 3 subtype b strain from swine populations in Vietnam. Virus Genes 57, 385-389.

Nguyen, V.G., Do, H.Q., Huynh, T.M.L., Park, Y.H., Park, B.K., Chung, H.C., 2022. Molecular-based detection, genetic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of porcine circovirus 4 from Korean domestic swine farms. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 69(2), 538-548.

Palinski, R., Piñeyro, P., Shang, P., Yuan, F., Guo, R., Fang, Y., Byers, E., Hause, B.M., 2017. A Novel Porcine Circovirus Distantly Related to Known Circoviruses Is Associated with Porcine Dermatitis and Nephropathy Syndrome and Reproductive Failure. J Virol 91.

Quan, P.H., Giap, N.V., Thuy, N.T.T., Hoat, P.C., 2017. Investigating The Prevalence of Novel Porcine Circovirus 3 (PCV3) in Pig Populations in The North of Vietnam. Vietnam Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 15(11), 1520-1528.

Phan, T.G., Giannitti, F., Rossow, S., Marthaler, D., Knutson, T.P., Li, L., Deng, X., Resende, T., Vannucci, F., Delwart, E., 2016.

Detection of a novel circovirus PCV3 in pigs with cardiac and multi-systemic inflammation. Virology Journal 13, 184.

Postel, A., Hansmann, F., Baechlein, C., Fischer, N., Alawi, M., Grundhoff, A., Derking, S., Tenhündfeld, J., Pfankuche, V.M., Herder, V., Baumgärtner, W., Wendt, M., Becher, P., 2016. Presence of atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) genomes in newborn piglets correlates with congenital tremor. Sci Rep 6, 27735.

Saporiti, V., Valls, L., Maldonado, J., Perez, M., Correa-Fiz, F., Segalés, J., Sibila, M., 2021. Porcine Circovirus 3 Detection in Aborted Fetuses and Stillborn Piglets from Swine Reproductive Failure Cases. Viruses 13.

Shen, H., Liu, X., Zhang, P., Wang, L., Liu, Y., Zhang, L., Liang, P., Song, C., 2018. Genome characterization of a porcine circovirus type 3 in South China. Transbound Emerg Dis 65, 264-266.

Stadler, J., Jannasch, C., Mack, S.L., Dietz, S., Zöls, S., Ritzmann, M., Hoelzle, K., Hoelzle, L.E., 2014. Clinical and haematological characterisation of Mycoplasma suis infections in splenectomised and non-splenectomised pigs. Vet Microbiol 172, 294-300.

Stadler, J., Willi, S., Ritzmann, M., Eddicks, M., Ade, J., Hoelzle, K., Hoelzle, L.E., 2019. Detection of Mycoplasma suis in pre-suckling piglets indicates a vertical transmission. BMC Veterinary Research 15, 252.

Strait, E.L., Hawkins, P.A., Wilson, W.D., 2012. Dysgalactia associated with Mycoplasma suis infection in a sow herd. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 241, 1666-1667.

Temeeyasen, G., Lierman, S., Arruda, B.L., Main, R., Vannucci, F., Gimenez-Lirola, L.G., Piñeyro, P.E., 2021. Pathogenicity and immune response against porcine circovirus type 3 infection in caesarean-derived, colostrum-deprived pigs. J Gen Virol 102.

Truyen, U.S., A.F. , 2019. Parvoviruses, 11th ed.

Vargas-Bermúdez, D.S., Vargas-Pinto, M.A., Mogollón, J.D., Jaime, J., 2021. Field infection of a gilt and its litter demonstrates vertical transmission and effect on reproductive failure caused by porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3). BMC Veterinary Research 17, 150.

Xu, X.G., Chen, G.-D., Huang, Y., Ding, L., Li, Z.C., Chang, C.-D., Wang, C.Y., Tong, D.W., Liu, H.J., 2012. Development of multiplex PCR for simultaneous detection of six swine DNA and RNA viruses. Journal of virological methods 183, 69-74.

Yuan, L., Liu, Y., Chen, Y., Gu, X., Dong, H., Zhang, S., Han, T., Zhou, Z., Song, X., Wang, C., 2020. Optimized real-time fluorescence PCR assay for the detection of porcine Circovirus type 3 (PCV3). BMC Vet Res 16, 249.

Zachary, J.F., Basgall, E.J., 1985. Erythrocyte membrane alterations associated with the attachment and replication of Eperythrozoon suis: a light and electron microscopic study. Vet Pathol 22, 164-170.

Zheng, S., Wu, X., Zhang, L., Xin, C., Liu, Y., Shi, J., Peng, Z., Xu, S., Fu, F., Yu, J., Sun, W., Xu, S., Li, J., Wang, J., 2017. The occurrence of porcine circovirus 3 without clinical infection signs in Shandong Province. Transbound Emerg Dis 64, 1337-1341.

Zinn, G., Jesse, G., Dobson, A., 1983. Effect of eperythrozoonosis on sow productivity. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association.