Relationship between parasitism with milk yield and body weight of Mafriwal cattle

Main Article Content

Nur-Sabrina A.M
Muhamad-Ali H.A.M
Nur-Amalina N
Wan-Ladiana W.A
Hasimah H
C.W. Salma
Wan, K.L
Basripuzi N. Hayyan


Mafriwal cattle have good characteristics, but parasitism effects on their production have never been explored. This study aimed to determine the relationship between phenotypic markers of parasitism, namely packed cell volume (PCV), peripheral eosinophils count (PEC), nematode eggs (EPG), and coccidia oocyst (OPG) with the milk yield and body weight of Mafriwal cattle. Fecal and blood samples were collected from 242 cattle between 2021 and 2022. PCV and PEC were obtained from blood samples, while EPG and OPG were obtained from fecal samples. PCR was conducted to identify haemoparasite species. Milk yield data and the body weight of calves were also recorded. Spearman’s rank correlation showed that body weight has a negative correlation with PCV (r=-0.4; P<0.01) and a positive correlation with PEC (r=0.39; P<0.01) in 2022. Multiple linear regression models were used to determine the effect of phenotypic markers and year of sampling on milk yield and body weight. The best models were selected based on the lowest Akaike Information Criterion. Milk yield decreased significantly (P<0.001) from 2021 to 2022. An increase in PEC led to a significant reduction (P<0.001) in milk yield. Conversely, body weight increased significantly (P<0.001) from 2021 to 2022 and an increase in PCV caused a significant (P<0.001) reduction in body weight. Elevated EPG and OPG led to significant (P<0.01) reductions in body weight but the interaction between EPG and OPG has a significant positive (P<0.001) impact on body weight. Overall, the findings suggest that milk yield and body weight of Mafriwal cattle were significantly affected by parasitism thus necessitating the implementation of parasite control approaches.

Article Details

How to Cite
Nur-Sabrina A.M, Muhamad-Ali H.A.M, Nur-Amalina N, Wan-Ladiana W.A, Hasimah H, C.W. Salma, Wan, K.L, & Basripuzi N. Hayyan. (2023). Relationship between parasitism with milk yield and body weight of Mafriwal cattle: Veterinary Integrative Sciences, 22(1), 141–159. Retrieved from
Research Articles


Abd Majid, N.A.M., Ishak, M.I., Murugapiran, J.W.V., Aziz, N.A.A., Hayyan, B.N., 2022. Multiple anthelmintic resistance among dorper sheep detected with phenotypic markers against parasitic gastroenteritis. Malays. Appl. Biol. 51(3), 107-115.

Abramowicz, B., Kurek, Ł., Lutnicki, K., 2019. Haematology in the early diagnosis of cattle diseases-a review. Vet. Arh. 89(4), 579-590.

Adjou Moumouni, P.F., Aboge, G.O., Terkawi, M.A., Masatani, T., Cao, S., Kamyingkird, K.,Jirapattharasate, C., Zhou, M., Wang, G., Liu, M., Iguchi. A., Vudriko. P., Ybanez. A.P., Inokuma. H., Umemiya. R.S., Suzuki. H., Xuan. X., 2015. Molecular detection and characterization of Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Theileria species and Anaplasma marginale isolated from cattle in Kenya. Parasit. Vectors. 8(1), 1-14.

Agina, O.A., Shaari, M.R., Isa, N.M.M., Ajat, M., Zamri-Saad, M., Mazlan, M., Hamzah, H.,2021. Molecular detection of Theileria species, Anaplasma species, Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos, Trypanosoma evansi and first evidence of Theileria sinensisassociated

bovine anaemia in crossbred Kedah-Kelantan x Brahman cattle. BMC. Vet. Res. 17, 1-20.

Ananta, S., Suharno Hidayat, A., Matsubayashi, M., 2014. Survey on gastrointestinal parasites and detection of Cryptosporidium spp. on cattle in West Java, Indonesia. Asian Pac.J. Trop. Med. 7, 197–201.

Andrews, A., 2023. Coccidiosis of cattle - digestive system. MSD Veterinary Manual. Available online: diosisof-cattle.

Balic, A., Cunningham, C.P., Meeusen, E.N.T., 2006. Eosinophil interactions with Haemonchus contortus larvae in the ovine gastrointestinal tract. Parasite. Immunol. 28, 107–115.

Basri, H., 2019. The response of Boer goats to natural and deliberate gastrointestinal nematode infection (PhD thesis). University of Glasgow.

Basripuzi, N.H., Sharma, R.S., Norhadila, Z., Shahar, Z., Nor-Dilaila, M., Mustapha, M.,Kolandaiveloo, V., Ruviniyia, K., Matthews, L., 2020. Interaction between abomasal blood feeder haemonchus contortus and intestinal mucosal browser trichostrongylus

colubriformis during co-infection in boer goats. Vet. Parasitol. 287, 109274.

Basripuzi, N.H., Salisi, M.S., Isa, N.M.M., Busin, V., Cairns, C., Jenvey, C., Stear, M.J., 2018.Boer goats appear to lack a functional IgA and eosinophil response against natural nematode infection. Vet. Parasitol. 264, 18-25.

Bell-Sakyi, L., Koney, E., Dogbey, O., Walker, A., 2004. Incidence and prevalence of tickborne haemoparasites in domestic ruminants in Ghana. Vet. Parasitol. 124(1-2), 25-42.

Brito, L.F., Oliveira, H.R., McConn, B.R., Schinckel, A.P., Arrazola, A., Marchant-Forde, J.N.,Johnson, J.S., 2020. Large-scale phenotyping of livestock welfare in commercial production systems: a new frontier in animal breeding. Front. Genet. 11, 793.

Chandrawathani, P., Premaalatha, B., Omar, J., Mamat, Z.C., 2019. Gastro-intestinal tract (git) parasites. In: Chandrawathani, P., Premaalatha, B., Omar, B.J., Mamat, Z.C. (Eds), Manual on Parasitology. Department of Veterinary Services, Putrajaya,pp. 29-33.

Faber, J.E., Kollmann, D., Heise, A., Bauer, C., Failing, K., Bürger, H.J., Zahner, H., 2002.Eimeria infections in cows in the periparturient phase and their calves: oocyst excretion and levels of specific serum and colostrum antibodies. Vet. Parasitol.104(1), 1-17.

Faghiri, H., Yusop, Z., Krauss, S., Hj, M., Mohamed, Z., 2019. Factors influencing the dairy industry development and milk production level in Malaysia: a hybrid approach of coding and theme development. Int. J. Mod. Trends. Eng. Res. 2(10), 34-51.

FAO, 2021. Dairy market review-Overview of global dairy market developments in 2020.Available online:

Garamu, K., 2019. Significance of feed supplementation on milk yield and milk composition of dairy cow. Dairy. Vet. Sci. J. 13(2), 555860.

Gebrekidan, H., Gasser, R.B., Baneth, G., Yasur-Landau, D., Nachum-Biala, Y., Hailu, A.,Jabbar, A., 2016. Molecular characterization of Theileria orientalis from cattle in Ethiopia. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 7(5), 742-747.

Gomez, D.E., Galvão, K.N., Rodriguez-Lecompte, J.C., Costa, M.C., 2019. The cattle microbiota and the immune system: an evolving field. Vet. Clin. North Am. Food.Anim. Pract. 35(3), 485-505.

Gordon, H.M., Whitlock, H., 1939. A new technique for counting nematode eggs in sheep faeces. J. Council Sci. Res. 12(1), 50-52.

Gorsich, E.E., Ezenwa, V.O., Jolles, A.E., 2014. Nematode–coccidia parasite co-infections in African buffalo: Epidemiology and associations with host condition and pregnancy.Int. J. Parasitol. Parasites. Wildl. 3(2), 124-134.

Hashim, F.A.H., 2015. Strategies to strengthen livestock industry in Malaysia. Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI), Malaysia, pp. 1-6.

Hayyan, B.N., Sharma, R.S., Raimy, N., Nisha, M., Hussain, K., Busin, V.M., Jenvey,C.J., Cairns, C., Stear, M.J., 2020. Kinetics of IgA and eosinophils following a lowdose,predominantly Haemonchus contortus infection of Boer goats. Parasite.Immunol. 42(6), e12707.

Henderson, N.G., Stear, M.J., 2006. Eosinophil and IgA responses in sheep infected with Teladorsagia circumcincta. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 112(1–2), 62–66.

Jenvey, C., Alenizi, D., Almasi, F., Cairns, C., Holmes, A., Sloan, S., Stear, M., 2020. Bioinformatic analysis of eosinophil activity and its implications for model and target species. Parasitology. 147(4), 393-400.

Johansson, L., 2017. The impact of gastrointestinal parasites on weight gain, activity patterns and behaviours in cattle on pasture (Master thesis). Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.

Kho, K.L., Amarajothi, A.D.G., Koh, F.X., Panchadcharam, C., Hassan Nizam, Q.N., Tay,S.T., 2017. The first molecular survey of theileriosis in Malaysian cattle, sheep and goats. Vet. Parasitol. Reg. Stud. Reports. 10, 149-153.

Kimeli, P., VanLeeuwen, J., Gitau, G.K., Heider, L.C., McKenna, S.L., Greenwood, S.J.,2020. Management factors associated with time-to-onset and fecal egg/oocyst counts of gastrointestinal parasites in heifer calves on Kenyan smallholder farms. Vet. Parasitol. 283, 109174.

Lopez-Osorio, S., Villar, D., Failing, K., Taubert, A., Hermosilla, C., Chaparro-Gutierrez, J.,2020. Epidemiological survey and risk factor analysis on Eimeria infections in calves and young cattle up to 1 year-old in Colombia. Parasitol. Res. 119, 255-266.

Maharana, B.R., Kumar, B., Sudhakar, N.R., Behera, S.K., Patbandha, T.K., 2016. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in bovines in and around Junagadh (Gujarat). J. Parasit.Dis. 40(4), 1174-1178.

Makau, D., Gitau, G., Muchemi, G., Thomas, L.F., Cook, E.A., Wardrop, N., Fevre, E.M., de Glanville, W., 2017. Environmental predictors of bovine Eimeria infection in western Kenya. Trop. Anim. Health Prod. 49, 409-416

Mapiye, C., Chimonyo, M., Dzama, K., Marufu, M., 2009. Protein status of indigenous nguni and crossbred cattle in the semi-arid communal rangelands in South Africa. Asian-Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 23(2), 213-225.

Mastura, Y., Shariffah, N., Nor Aini, W., Muhamad, A.H.A., Mohd, H.A., Chandrawathani, P.,2019. Growth performance of mafriwal dairy cattle in Malaysia. Malays. J. Vet. Res.10(1), 43-50.

McRae, K.M., Stear, M.J., Good, B., Keane, O.M., 2015. The host immune response to gastrointestinal nematode infection in sheep. Parasite. Immunol. 37(12), 605–613.

Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food of Great Britain, 1986. Manual of veterinary parasitological laboratory techniques. MAFF, London, UK.

Mohamad, N., 2018. Growth performance of cattle fed by oil palm empty fruit bunches based feedstuff produced by two difference method. In Proceedings of 30th Veterinary Association of Malaysia (VAM) Congress, Petaling Jaya, Malaysia, 19-20 October 2018.

Ola-Fadunsin, S., Maizatul, A., Ibrahim, A., Amlizawathy, A., Chandrawathani, P., Jesse,F., Sani, R., Sharma, R., 2017. Molecular prevalence and species co-infection of bovine haemoparasites in Peninsular Malaysia. Malays. J. Vet. Res. 8(2), 13-22.

Olivares-Muñoz, A., Alonso-Díaz, M.A., Romero-Salas, D., Cruz-Romero, A., Barrientos-Morales, M., Pinos-Rodríguez, J.M., 2022. Prevalence and risk factors of coccidiosis in calves from Veracruz, México. Rev. Bras. Parasitol. Vet. 31(3), e005622.

Panandam, J., Raymond, A., 2005. Development of the Mafriwal dairy cattle of Malaysia. AGTR Case Study, Nairobi, Kenya.

Paul, B.T., Jesse, F.F.A., Chung, E.L.T., Che'Amat, A., Mohd Lila, M.A., 2020. Risk factorsand severity of gastrointestinal parasites in selected small ruminants from Malaysia.Vet. Sci. 7(4), 208.

Pulido-Medellin, M., López, A., Bulla, D., Garcia-Corredor, D., Díaz Anaya, A., Giraldo Forero, J., Higuera-Piedrahita, R.I., 2022. Diagnosis of gastrointestinal parasites in bovines of the department of boyacá, Colombia. Revista. Científica. 44, 272-281.

Reist, M., Erdin, D., Von Euw, D., Tschuemperlin, K., Leuenberger, H., Chilliard, Y., Zbinden,Y., 2002. Estimation of energy balance at the individual and herd level using blood and milk traits in high-yielding dairy cows. J. Dairy. Sci. 85(12), 3314-3327.

Schoder, U., Staunfenbiel, R., 2006. Methods to determine body fat reserves in the dairy cow with special regard to ultrasonograpic measurement of backfat thickness. J. Dairy.Sci. 89(4).

Stear, M., Henderson, N., Kerr, A., McKellar, Q., Mitchell, S., Seeley, C., Bishop, S., 2002.Eosinophilia as a marker of resistance to Teladorsagia circumcincta in Scottish Blackface lambs. Parasitology. 124(5), 553-560.

Singh, V., Choudhary, P., Jhirwal, A., 2020. Impact of body condition score on performance of sahiwal cattle. Acta Sci. Vet. Sci. 2, 01-02.

Souissi, W., Bouraoui, R., 2019. Relationship between body condition score, milk yield,reproduction, and biochemical parameters in dairy cows. Available online:

Syridion, D., Layek, S.S., Behera, K., Mohanty, T.K., Kumaresan, A., Manimaran, A., Dang,A.K., Prasad, S., 2012. Effect of parity, season, stage of lactation, and milk yield on milk somatic cell count, pH and electrical conductivity in crossbred cows reared under subtropical climatic conditions. Milchwissenschaft-Milk Sci. Int. 67(4), 349-464.

Tan, Y., Izuan-Bahtiar, A., Mohamad-Naim, Z., Nor-Ain, W., Ali-Hanapiah, A., 2014. Influence of parity and lactation stage on the milk somatic cell count (SCC) in Mafriwal cows.Vet. Res. 5, 308-309.

Tay, S.T., Koh, F., Kho, K., Ong, B., 2014. Molecular survey and sequence analysis of Anaplasma spp. in cattle and ticks in a Malaysian farm. Trop. Biomed. 31, 769-776.

Terefe, G., Lacroux, C., Prévot, F., Grisez, C.,Bergeaud, J.P., Bleuart, C., Dorchies, P., Foucras,G., Jacquiet, P., 2009. Eosinophils in Haemonchus contortus-infected resistant and susceptible breeds of sheep: Abomasal tissue recruitment and in vitro functional state.

Vet. Parasitol. 165(1–2), 161–164.

Tomczuk, K., Grzybek, M., Szczepaniak, K., Studzińska, M., Demkowska-Kutrzepa, M.,Roczeń-Karczmarz, M., Klockiewicz, M., 2015. Analysis of intrinsic and extrinsic factors influencing the dynamics of bovine Eimeria spp. from central–eastern Poland.Vet. Parasitol. 214(1-2), 22-28.

Uilenberg, G., 2006. Babesia—a historical overview. Vet. Parasitol. 138(1-2), 3-10.

Villanueva-Saz, S., Borobia, M., Fernández, A., Jiménez, C., Yzuel, A., Verde, M., Ramo,M.A., Figueras, L., Ruíz, H. 2022. Anaemia in sheep caused by Babesia and Theileria haemoparasites. Animals. 12, 3341.

Yusof, A.M., 2019. Occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites from Friesian cattle in Pekan.Malays. J. Microsc. 15(1), 103-110.