The effects of sappanwood (Caesalpinia sappan) addition on in vitro methane mitigation, gas production, and ruminal fermentation parameters

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Hilmy Abdurrasyid Ammar
Chusnul Hanim
Asih Kurniawati
Andriyani Astuti


This research was designed to examine the methane-mitigating properties of sappanwood and its effects on ruminal fermentation parameters using the in vitro gas production method from Menke and Steingass (1988). The sappanwood was dried and pulverised to obtain the sappanwood powder, which was added to 300 mg of forage:concentrate substrate (70:30) at three different levels (2, 4, and 6% DM basis). The in vitro incubation followed a randomised block design and was incubated for 48 hours. The continuous data was then analysed using mixed models of the mixed procedure in SAS on Demand (SAS Institute, Inc. Carry). The results showed that all treatment levels did not affect total gas production, the gas fractions, NH3 levels, microbial proteins, and protozoal counts (P>0.05). The total CH4 and CO2 productions, CH4 and CO2 productions per mg dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) degraded, digested dry matter (DDM), digested organic matter (DOM), pH values, total VFAs, acetic, propionic, and butyric acid productions differed significantly (P<0.05). The results emphasizing the 6% addition of sappanwood showed the best methane mitigating properties without hindering ruminal fermentation processes and ruminal microbes.

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How to Cite
Ammar, H. A. ., Hanim, C., Kurniawati, A., Muhlisin, M., & Astuti, A. (2024). The effects of sappanwood (Caesalpinia sappan) addition on in vitro methane mitigation, gas production, and ruminal fermentation parameters: Veterinary Integrative Sciences, 22(3), 1103–1112. Retrieved from
Research Articles
Author Biography

Chusnul Hanim, Faculty of Animal Science, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Fauna No. 3 Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia

Faculty of Animal Science


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