Effect of fresh azolla (Azolla pinnata) feed replacement on growth performance, carcass quality, and oxidative stress in Thai native crossbred chicken https://doi.org/10.12982/VIS.2024.069

Main Article Content

Montri Punyatong
Patcharee Kanjak
Wanaporn Tapingkae
Chompunut Lumsangkul
Tossapol Moonmanee
Hien Van Doan
Pimporn Khamtavee


 Azolla (Azolla pinnata), an aquatic fern, has high amounts of crude protein and essential amino acids and thus could be an economical and plentiful alternative feed source for poultry. In this study we investigated how partial replacement of pelleted concentrate diet with fresh azolla affected growth performance, carcass quality, and oxidative stress in Thai native crossbred chicken. A total of 600 male, six week-old native crossbred chickens (Pradu Hang dum) were randomly assigned to six experimental groups that were for fed for four weeks with 100% commercial pelleted diet (control) or a diet having partial replacement of the control diet with 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, or 25% fresh azolla (FA). The feed cost per weight gain was significantly decreased in chickens fed FA (p<0.05). No significant differences among the groups were seen in live body weight, defeather weight, carcass percentage and some internal organs, although the 15% and 20% FA groups had significantly lower (p<0.05) wing weight. Breast meat lightness and yellowness were significantly higher (p<0.05) for the 15% FA group, and the 25% FA group had significantly lower (p<0.05) meat redness relative to the other groups. The shear force of the breast meat was significantly lower (p<0.05) for the 10%, 15%, and 20% FA groups compared to the other groups. For oxidative stress parameters, the glutathione level (GSH) was similar among all the groups. The groups fed fresh azolla all had significantly lower (p<0.05) malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations relative to the control group, although the MDA level in stored meat was similar among all the groups. Taken together, these results suggest that fresh azolla can be used as an alternative feed source to lower production costs for Thai native crossbred chicken.

Article Details

How to Cite
Punyatong, M., Kanjak, P., Tapingkae, W. ., Lumsangkul, C., Moonmanee, T., Van Doan, H. ., & Khamtavee, P. . (2024). Effect of fresh azolla (Azolla pinnata) feed replacement on growth performance, carcass quality, and oxidative stress in Thai native crossbred chicken: https://doi.org/10.12982/VIS.2024.069. Veterinary Integrative Sciences, 22(3), 1019–1028. Retrieved from https://he02.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/vis/article/view/266664
Research Articles


Abd El-Ghany, W. A., 2020. A review on use of Azolla species in poultry production. J. World Poult. Res. 10(2), 378-384.

Abdelatty, A. M., Mandouh, M. I., Al-Mokaddem, A. K., Mansour, H. A., Khalil, H. M. A., Elolimy, A. A., Ford, H., Farid, O. A. A., Prince, A., Sakr, O. G., Aljuaydi, S. H., Bionaz, M., 2020. Influence of level of inclusion of Azolla leaf meal on growth performance, meat quality and skeletal muscle p70S6 kinase α abundance in broiler chickens. Animal. 14(11), 2423–2432.

Alalade, O.A., Iyayi, E.A., 2006. Chemical composition and the feeding value of azolla (Azolla pinnata) meal for egg-type chicks. International Journal of Poultry Science. 5(2), 137-141.

Anitha, K.C., Rajeshwari, Y.B., Prasanna, S.B., Shilpa Shree, J., 2016. Nutritive evaluation of azolla as livestock feed. Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences. 4(6), 670-674.

Bhatt, N., Singh, N. P., Singh, A. K., Kandpal, D.,Chaudhary, P., Patoliya, P., 2020. Azolla – A potent unconventional feed and its effect of feeding on various livestock species –A Review. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies. 8(2), 1693-1698.

Boyne, A. F., Ellman, G.L., 1972. A methodology for analysis of tissue sulfhydryl components. Anal Biochem. 46(2), 639-653.

Chichilichi, B., Mohanty, G. P., Mishra, S. K., Pradhan, C. R., Behura, N. C., Das, A., Behera, K., 2015. Effect of partial supplementation of sun-dried Azolla as a protein source on the immunity and antioxidant status of commercial broiler. Veterinary world. 8(9), 1126-1130.

Gouri, M. D., Sanganal, J. S., Gopinath, C. R., Kalibavi, C. M. 2012. Important of azolla as a sustainable feed for livestock and poultry - A review. Agric. Review. 33(2), 93-103.

Hassen, W., Tafese, W., Amza, N., Gudeta, S., Beyene, A., Muleta, E., 2019. Effect of partial substitution of soybean meal (Glycine Max) by mosquito fern (Azolla pinnata) on growth performance and carcass characteristic of cobb500 broiler chickens. Ethiop. J. Appl. Sci. Technol. 10(2), 22-28.

Joysowal, M., Aziz, A., Mondal, A., Singh, S. M., Siddhnath, Boda, S., Chirwatkar, B., Chhaba, B., 2018. Effect of azolla (Azolla pinnata) feed on the growth of broiler chicken. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies. 6(3), 391-393.

Kamel, E. R., Hamed, E., 2021. Effect of dried azolla on growth performance, hematological, biochemical, antioxidant paprameters, and economic efficiency of broiler chickens. Adv. Anim. Vet. Sci. 9(11), 1886-1894.

Kathirvelan, C., Banupriya, S., M.R. Purushothaman, M. R. 2015. Azolla- an alternative and sustainable feed for livestock. International Journal of Science, Environment and Technology. 4 (4), 1153-1157.

Katole, S. B., Shweta, R. Lende, Patil, S. S., 2017. A review on potential livestock feed: Azolla. Livestock Research International. 5(1), 1-9.

Khursheed, I., Masud, S., Khan, A., Khan, N., Kour, S., Dua, S., Khursheed, I., 2019. Proximate evaluation of Azolla pinnata as sustainable feed supplement for poultry. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 8(3), 3157-3160.

Mishra, D. B., Roy, D., Kumar, V., Bhattacharyya, A., Kumar, M., Kushwaha, R., Vaswani, S., 2016. Effect of azolla (Azolla pinnata) meal on the performance, nutrient utilization and carcass characteristics of Chabro chicken. Indian Journal of Poultry Science. 51(3), 259-263.

Mohamed, M. R., Ahmed, I. M., Osama, A. Z., Hamada, A. A., Janice A. R., Mohamed, S. H., 2023. Fresh Azolla, Azolla pinnata as a complementary feed for Oreochromis niloticus: growth, digestive enzymes, intestinal morphology, physiological responses, and flesh quality. Hindawi Aquaculture Nutrition. 13 p., DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2023/1403704

Naghshi, H., Khojasteh, S., Jafari, M., 2014. Investigation the effect of different levels of azolla (Azolla pinnata) on performance and carcass characteristics of cobb broiler chicks. Intl J Farm & Alli Sci. 3(1), 45-49.

Phianmongkhol, A., Wirjantoro, T., Chailungka, C., Prathum, C., Leotaragul, A., 2012. Public perception in Thai native chicken (Pradu Hang Dum Chiang Mai) via Food Contests. In Proceedings of the 2nd International Seminar on Animal Industry, Jakarta, Malaysia, 5-6 July 2012.

Pripwai, N., Pattanawong, W., Punyatong, M., Teltathum, T., 2014. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of Thai inheritance chickens. Thai. J. Agric. Sci. 6(2), 182-188.

Rengma, D. J., Savino, N., Vidyarthi, V. K., 2019. Effect of dietary inclusion of azolla powder on performance of broiler chicken. Livestock Reserch International. 7(2), 144-150.

Riaz, A., Khan, M.S., Saeed, M., Kamboh, A. A., Khan, R. U., Farooq, Z., Safdar Imran, S., Farid, M. U., 2022. Importance of Azolla plant in poultry production. World's Poultry Science Journal. 78(3), 789-802.

Samad, F. A. A., Idris, L. H., Hassim, H. A., Goh, Y. M., Loh, T. C., 2020. Effects of Azolla spp. as feed ingredient on the growth performance and nutrient digestibility of broiler chicken. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr. 104, 1704-1711.

Santos, M.T., Valles, J., Aznar, J., Vilches, J., 1980. Determination of plasma malondialdehyde-like material and its clinical application in stroke patients. J. Clin. Pathol. 33(10), 973-976.

Shukla, M., Bhattacharyya, A., Shukla, P.K., Roy, D., Yadav, B., Sirohi, R., 2018. Effect of Azolla feeding on the growth, feed conversion ratio, blood biochemical attributes and immune competence traits of growing turkeys, Veterinary World. 11(4), 459-463.

Sinha, B. S., Kumar, S., Chudhary, G. K., 2018. Use of fresh azolla as dietary supplementation in backyard poultry. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci. 7, 1358-1361.

Swain, B. K., Naik, P. K., Beura, C. K., 2022. Nutritive value of azolla as poultry feed-A Review. Indian J. Anim. Nutr. 39(1), 1-11.