Perdictive Factors of Depression Among Students in Junior High School


  • Intasuwan U, Dallas C.J, Nabkasorn C


Depression, Adversity quotient, Internet games addiction, Authoritative parenting style, junior high school


Depression in adolescence is predominant problem because it affects adolescent themselve, family, and society. This predictive correlational study aimed to determine factors influencing depression among junior high school students. A sample of 200 junior high school students in Trad province was recruited by stratified random sampling technique. Data were obtained during June to July, 2018. Research instruments included 1) demographic questionnaires, 2) authoritative questionnaires, 3) phone addiction questionnaires, 4) internet game addiction questionnaires for children and adolescents, 5) adversity quotient questionnaires, and 6) depression scale questionnaires for children. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistic and stepwise multiple regression analysis.The results found that 30% of sample had depression. The overall mean score of depression was 21.78 (S.D. = 4.46). Factors influencing depression included adversity quotient (β = -0.292, p < 0.001), internet game addiction (β = 0.222, p < 0.05), and authoritative (β = -0.163, p < 0.05), respectively. Total variances explain for depression among high school students was 27% (R2 = 0.271, Adjusted R2 = 0.256, p < 0.001). The results show that adversity quotient, internet game addiction and authoritative parenting style influenced on depression among students in junior high school; therefore, nurses, health care providers, and the people who work with adolescents should use these significant variables to develop program in order to prevent depression among adolescents.


Download data is not yet available.


Mufson LH. Interpersonal psychotherapy for depressed adolescents. New York: Guilford; 2004.

United Nations Children’s Fund [UNICEF]. Child well-being in rich countries a comparative overview; 2012.

World Health Organization. Core competencies in adolescent health and development for primary care providers including a tool to assess the adolescent health and development component in pre-service education of health-car providers.2018.[cited 2019 July 20] Retrieved from archive.html.

Ministry of public health bureau of Information office. “Beware of online society” [Internet]. [cited 2018 Nov 10] Available from hotnew/show_hotnew.php?idHot_new=75880

Chan C. C, Guignon N, Delmas M. C, Herbet J. B, Gonzalez L. Estimation of prevalence of depressive episodes in French adolescents.Revue d’epidemiologie et de sante publique 2012; 60: 31-39.

Sound AM, Larsson B,Wichstrom L. Prevalence and characteristics of depressive disorders in early adolescents in central Norway.Child and adolescent psychiatry and mental health 2011; 5: 28.

Maneerat W. The factors contributing to depression in muang chiang rai district, chiang rai province. Journal of Social Sciences 2017; 10: 113-26.

Kaewin K. Depression and behavior problems among adolescent in urban opportunity school under sing buri provincial office of primary education; Master’s thesis of Nursing Science, Nursing Administration, Bankok: Chulalongkorn University; 2011.

Jiamjaroenkul J. Depression among junior high school students in muang district, chiang mai province. Journal of the Psychiatric Association of Thailand 2015; 60: 253-6.

Janjuskarn B. Predictive factors of depression among high school students of municipality chanthaburi, Master’s thesis of Nursing Science, mental health and psychiatric nursing, Chonburi: Burapha University; 2017.

Tangkittipakorn J (editor). Genneral Psychology. Bankok: Chulalongkorn University; 2015.

Baumrind, D. Current patterns of parental authority. Development Psychology Monongraphs 19974; 1-103.

Mental Health Network Trat. Children’s Depression [Internet]. [cited 2018 Nov 10] Available from https://www.facebook. com/ Mental Health Network Trat -492634964238654/.

Tabachink BG, Fidell LS. Using multivariate statistic . 4th ed. Massachusetts: Allyn & Bacon; 2007.

Thitipanichayangkoon T. Some factors affecting emotional stability and adversity quotient of matthayomsuksa III students in bangkok educational service area III. Master’s thesis of Education Administration. thesis of Education, Bangkok: Srinakharinwirot University; 2007.

Saengwipa W. Mental health education of students in chaiyaphum. Master’s thesis of Education Administration. thesis of Education, Bangkok: Srinakharinwirot University; 2003.

Pewnil T, Isarabhakdi. Communication technology use behavior and mental health of secondary school students in Kanchanaburi province. Journal of Telecommunication and Mental Health 2015; 34: 134-49.

Young KS. Internet addiction: The emergence of a new clinical disorder. America Behavioral Scientist 2004; 48: 402-415.

Pornnoppadol C, Ayudhaya LS, Surapongphiwattana T, Phoasavasdi C. Development of game addiction protection scale. Journal of the Psychiatric Association of Thailand 2017; 62: 3-16.

Stoltz PG. Adversity quotient: Turning obstacles into opportunities. New York; the Guilford Press: 1997.

Trangkasombat U, Likanapichitkul D. Diagnosis Depressive symptom in children 10-15 years by Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI): Psychiatric Association of Thailand; 2001.

Beck AT. The diagnosis and management of depression. Philadelphia; University of Pennsylvania; 1973.

Srisatidnarakul B. The methodology in nursing research. 5th ed. Bangkok: UNI intermedia.

Department of mental health. Factors of depression Among Adolescents (RQ: Resilience quotient).Nonthaburi: Deenadu; 2018.

Bunjong T. Factors affecting the adversity quotient of students in mathayomsuksa IV. Philosophy’s thesis of educational administration, Bankok: Sripatum University; 2012.

Trat. Secondary Education Service Area Office 17, Ministry of Public Health; 2016.

Secondary Education Service Area Office 17. Annual report 2016 Secondary Education Service Area Office.

Aensanmuong P. A causal structural relationship model of factors influencing depression of mattayomsuksa 5 students in nakhonratchasima province. Master’s thesis of Education Administration. thesis of Education, Mahasarakham: Mahasarakham University; 2011.

Singthong, R.The relationships among coping behavior autro and depression of junior high school students in opportunity expansion schools district of muang Surat thani province. Master’s thesis of Nursing Science. Nursing Administration, Bangkok: Silpakorn University; 2011.

Nikam VB, Uplane MM. Adversity quotient and defense mechanism of secondary school students. Universal Journal of Educational Research 2013; 1: 303-8.

Monica JD. Emotional intellgence and adversity quotient of selected helping professionals. Submitted to Department of Psychology Institute of Arts and Sciences, Manila University; 2015.

Wongkaewpothong O. Internet addiction of online community. Journal of the Executive 2011; 31: 39-42.

Chareonwanit S.Game addiction behaviors: Impacts and preventions. Journal of the science and technology 2014; 22: 871-9.

Rabadi L. The relationship between depression and internet addict among university student in Jordan, Medical School. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing 2017; 25: 115-20.

Shirazi M, Pour BA, Ghaffari P, Jahangir F, Daryaee E, Pour Z A, Shahbazi F. The Relationship Between Internet Addiction and Depression in Nursing Students of Larestan School of Nursing and Gerash Paramedical School. Journal of Obstetrics Gynecology and Cancer Research 2016; 1.

Gentile A, Hyekyung C, Albert L,Timothy S, Dongdong L, Deniel F, Angeline K. Pathological video game use among youths. Journal of adolescence 2011; 34: 127-327.

Zamani E, Chashmi M, Hedayati N. Effect of addiction to computer games on physical and mental health of female and male students of guidance school in city of Isfahan.Addiction & health, 2009; 1: 98.

Maccoby E E, Martin J. Socialization in the context of Family: Parent-child Interaction. In P.H Mussen (ed), Handbook of child Psychology, 2011; 1-101.

Meuangsee A. Strengthening the happiness of teenagers in the family. Journal of MCU Peace studies 2018; 6: 256-270.

Reangsing C.Predictive factors influence depression among secondary school student regional education office chiang rai province. Journal of Nursing Council 2011; 26: 42-6.

Sihawong S, Deedungpan S.The correlated between parenting styles and rick behaviors in adolescents. Master’s thesis of Nursing Science. Nursing Administration, Ubonratchathani: Ubonratchathani University; 2011.

Ukraisa S, Rungsayatorn SA. Family relationship and adversity quotient and prevention of commit suicide at rick of public university students. Journal of Social Science Kasetsart 2015; 30: 156-68.

Lipps G, Lowe GA, Gibson RC, Halliday S, Morris A, Clarke N, Wilson RN. Parenting and depressive symptoms among adolescents in four Caribbean societies. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health 2012; 6: 1-12.

Sharma M, Sharma N, Yadava A. Parental styles and depression among adolescents. Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology 2014; 37: 60-8.

Sheela S. A study of the relationship between depression and parenting styles among adolescents. International Journal of Engineering Development 2018; 5: 20-25.

Devito J. The Interpersonal Communication Book 13th Edition. Pearson; 2012.

National Statistical office. The 2018 household survey on the use of information and communication technology. Bangkok: National Statistical office; 2018.

Alfawareh H, Jusoh S. Smartphones Usage among University Students: Najran University Case. International Journal of Academic Research 2019; 6: 321-6.

Aoki K, Downes EJ. An analysis of young people’s use of and attitudes toward cell phones. Journal of Telematics and Informatics 2013; 20: 349-64.

Lee C, Lee SJ. Prevalence and predictors of smartphone addiction proneness among Korean adolescents. Journal of Children and Youth Services Review 2017; 77: 10-17.



How to Cite

อุษณี อินทสุวรรณ วท.บ , จิณห์จุฑา ชัยเสนา ดาลลาส พย.ด., ชนัดดา แนบเกษร วย.ด. Perdictive Factors of Depression Among Students in Junior High School. j dept med ser [Internet]. 2019 Aug. 1 [cited 2022 Aug. 10];44(4):125-31. Available from:



Original Article