Effects of Infant Massage on Behavioral Pain Responses, Heart Rate and Oxygen Saturation in Newborn Undergoing Venipuncture

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Sureetorn Songklin
Narumon Teerarungsikul


This quasi-experimental research aimed to study the effects of infant massage on behavioral
pain responses, heart rate and oxygen saturation in newborns undergoing venipuncture. The sample
included 30 newborns with a gestational age of 37-42 weeks admitted to the neonatal ward of
Saraburi Hospital. Simple random sampling was used to select 30 newborns, divided equally into
experimental and control groups. The control group received routine care and swaddling, while the
experimental group received infant massage for two minutes before venipuncture. Data collection
instruments were the infant massage program, demographic characteristics, heart rate and oxygen
saturation record form, and the Neonatal Infant Pain Scale, which had a Cronbach’s alpha of .90. Data
were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Independent t-tests.
The results revealed that the mean scores of behavioral pain response in the experimental
group immediately after undergoing infant massage and one minute later were signifcantly lower
than those of the control group (t = -13.201, p < .05 and t = -3.154, p < .05) respectively. Heart rate
and oxygen saturation were not signifcantly different between groups. These fndings suggest that
infant massage could be a practical nursing intervention to relieve pain among newborns undergoing
venipuncture or other invasive hospital procedures.


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