Main Article Content
This quasi-experimental research aimed to study the effects of infant massage on behavioral
pain responses, heart rate and oxygen saturation in newborns undergoing venipuncture. The sample
included 30 newborns with a gestational age of 37-42 weeks admitted to the neonatal ward of
Saraburi Hospital. Simple random sampling was used to select 30 newborns, divided equally into
experimental and control groups. The control group received routine care and swaddling, while the
experimental group received infant massage for two minutes before venipuncture. Data collection
instruments were the infant massage program, demographic characteristics, heart rate and oxygen
saturation record form, and the Neonatal Infant Pain Scale, which had a Cronbach’s alpha of .90. Data
were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Independent t-tests.
The results revealed that the mean scores of behavioral pain response in the experimental
group immediately after undergoing infant massage and one minute later were signifcantly lower
than those of the control group (t = -13.201, p < .05 and t = -3.154, p < .05) respectively. Heart rate
and oxygen saturation were not signifcantly different between groups. These fndings suggest that
infant massage could be a practical nursing intervention to relieve pain among newborns undergoing
venipuncture or other invasive hospital procedures.
A., Longini, M., Capitani, S., & Buonocore,
G. (2009). Even routine painful procedures
can be harmful for the newborn. Pain, 147,
Chick, Y. M., & Wan, I. P. (2011). The effect of limb
massage on infant’s venipuncture pain.
The Journal of Pain, 13(4), 89.
Cruz, M.D., Fernandes, A.M., & Oliveira (2016).
Epidemiology of painful procedures
performed in neonates: A systematic
review of observational studies, Eur J Pain.
Field. T, Diego, M, A, & Hernandez-Reif, M. (2007).
Massage therapy research. Development
Review, 27, 75-89.
Gardner, S.L, Hines, M.E., & Agarwal, A.R. (2016).
Pain and pain relief. In S.L., Gardner, B.S.,
Carter, M.E., Hines, J.A., Hernandez (Eds).
Merenstein & Gardner’s handbook of
neonatal intensive care (pp. 218-261)
(8th ed.). St. Louis: Elsevier.
Gradin, M., Finnström, O., & Schollin, J. (2004).
Feeding and oral glucose additive effects
on pain reduction in newborns. Early
Human Development, 77(1-2), 57-65.
Hall, R. W. & Anand, K. J. S. (2014). Pain
management in newborns. Clinics in
Perinatology, 41(4), 895-924. doi:10.1016/
Hemkunakorn, P. (2000). Effect of touch on
behavioral pain responses, heart rates,
oxygen saturation and crying times related
to hepatitis B vaccine injection in neonates.
The Thai police medical journal, 26, 19-24.
Inruan, S., Daramas, T., & Pookboonmee, R. (2013).
Effects of olfactory stimulation with breast
milk on pain response to heel stick in full
term infant. Rama Nurs J, 19(3), 320-332.
Joung, K. H., & Cho, S. C. (2010). The effect of
sucrose on infants during a painful
procedure. Korean J Pediatr, 53(8), 790-794.
Kulkarni, A., Kaushik, J.S., Gupta, P., Sharma, H., &
Agrawal, R.K. (2010). Massage and touch
therapy in neonates: The current evidence.
Indian Pediatrics, 47, 771-776.
Lawrence, J., Alcock, D., McGrath, P., Kay, J.,
MacMurray, S. B., & Dulberg, C. (1993). The
development of a tool to assess neonatal
pain. Neonatal Network, 12, 59-66.
Melzack, R., & Wall, P. D. (1965). Pain Mechanisms:
A new theory. American Association for
the Advancement of Science, 150, 971-979.
Pinelli, J., Symington, A., & Ciliska, D. (2002).
Nonnutritive sucking in high-risk infants:
Benign intervention or legitimate therapy?
Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and
Neonatal Nursing, 31, 582-591.
Polit, D. F., & Beck, C. T. (2004). Nursing
research principles and methods (7th ed.).
Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Schellack, N. (2011). A review of pain management
in the neonate. South African Pharmacy
Journal, 78(7), 10-13.
Sinpru, N., Tilokskulchai, F, Vichitsukon, K., &
Boonyarittipong, P. (2009). The effect of
clinical nursing practice guidelines for
swaddling on pain relief from heel stick in
neonates. J Nurs Sci, 27(1), 32-45. [In Thai].
Taksande, A. M., Vilhekar, K. Y., Jain, M., & Chitre,
D. (2005). Pain response of neonates to
venipuncture. Indian J Pediatr, 72(9), 751-3
Tantapong, E. (2000). The effects of swaddling on
pain response related to heel stick in
premature infants. Unpublished master’s
thesis, Mahidol University, Bangkok. [In Thai].
Thongprong, C., Chaimongkol, N., & Pongjaturawit,
Y. (2011). Effects of planned breastfeeding
on pain in neonates receiving venipuncture,
The Journal of Faculty of Nursing Burapha
University, 19(2), 42-53. [In Thai].