Health Behaviors and Health-Related Quality of Life among Buddhist Monks with Metabolic Syndrome

Main Article Content

Vipada Srimantayamas
Warunee Fongkaew
Benjamas Suksatit
Patcharaporn Aree
Natapong Kosachunhanun


                Metabolic syndrome is a major health concern among Thai monks. However, little is known about health behaviors and health-related quality of life among Thai monks with metabolic syndrome. This study 1) examined the health behaviors and health-related quality of life among Thai monks with metabolic syndrome, and 2) predicting factors of health-related quality of life, including health behaviors, and monks’ characteristics. Two hundred and sixty monks with metabolic syndrome who visited outpatient clinics at a large university hospital in the north of Thailand participated in the study. Four research instruments, a demographic data form, case record form, health behavior questionnaire, and the SF-36 Thai version were employed for data collection. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Simple and multivariate logistic regressions were also used to estimate the odds ratio of good health-related quality of life.
               The findings demonstrated that the total health behaviors score was at the fair level while healthy diet, physical activities, adherence to medication and follow up were at the good level. In multivariate analysis, age, location of monastery, healthy diet, and physical activities were statistically significant predictors of health-related quality of life among monks with metabolic syndrome. Of those four predictors, only healthy diet and physical activities can be modified. Nursing interventions targeting on improving health behaviors, especially for diet and physical activities, are important to improve health-related quality of life among Thai monks with metabolic syndrome.

Article Details

How to Cite
Srimantayamas V, Fongkaew W, Suksatit B, Aree P, Kosachunhanun N. Health Behaviors and Health-Related Quality of Life among Buddhist Monks with Metabolic Syndrome. PRIJNR [Internet]. 2020 Mar. 14 [cited 2022 May 19];24(2):159-71. Available from:
Original paper


Alberti KG, Eckel RH, Grundy SM, et al. Harmonizing the metabolic syndrome: a joint interim statement of the International Diabetes Federation Task Force on Epidemiology and Prevention; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; American Heart Association; World Heart Federation; International Atherosclerosis Society; and International Association for the Study of Obesity. Circulation. 2009; 120: 1640-5.

Moore JX, Chaudhary N and Akinyemiju T. Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence by Race/Ethnicity and Sex in the United States, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-2012. Prev Chronic Dis. 2017; 14: E24.

Kaur J. A comprehensive review on metabolic syndrome. Cardiol Res Pract. 2014; 2014: 943162.

Pucci G, Alcidi R, Tap L, Battista F, Mattace-Raso F and Schillaci G. Sex- and gender-related prevalence, cardiovascular risk and therapeutic approach in metabolic syndrome: A review of the literature. Pharmacol Res. 2017; 120: 34-42.

Ranasinghe P, Mathangasinghe Y, Jayawardena R, Hills AP and Misra A. Prevalence and trends of metabolic syndrome among adults in the asia-pacific region: a systematic review. BMC Public Health. 2017; 17: 101.

Saboya PP, Bodanese LC, Zimmermann PR, Gustavo AD, Assumpcao CM and Londero F. Metabolic syndrome and quality of life: a systematic review. Rev Lat Am Enfermagem. 2016; 24: e2848.

Saklayen MG. The global epidemic of the metabolic syndrome. Curr Hypertens Rep. 2018; 20: 12.

Nolan PB, Carrick-Ranson G, Stinear JW, Reading SA and Dalleck LC. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and metabolic syndrome components in young adults: A pooled analysis. Prev Med Rep. 2017; 7: 211-5.

Aekplakorn W. Thai National Health Examination Survey, NHES V. Bangkok: Health System Research Institute, 2016. (in Thai).

Norasigha P, Navaphongpaveen K and Piyaaramwong P. Prevalence and associated factors of metabolic syndrome in Buddhist monks at Phra Nakorn Si Ayutthaya province, Thailand. J Med Health Sci. 2018. 25: 21-9. (in Thai).

Angkatavanich J, Ariyapitipun T, Wisesrith W, Prasobtham J and Punpanich D. Situation of Nutritional Problem in Buddhist Monks from Project “Sonkthaiglairok”. Bangkok: Thai Health Promotion Foundation, 2016. (in Thai).

Samson SL and Garber AJ. Metabolic syndrome. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2014; 43: 1-23.

Payutto PA. Thai Buddhism in the Buddhist world. 8th ed. Bangkok, Thailand: Wat Phra Chetuphon, 2017.

Ariyesako B. The bhikkhus’ rules a guide for laypeople: the theravādin Buddhist monk’s rules. Victoria: Sanghāloka Forest Hermitage, 1998.

Ṭhanissaro VPJ. The buddhist monastic code : the patimokkha training rules translated and explained. California, USA: Metta Forest Monastery, 1999.

Phraratsittivetee, Suksatit B, Singmanee C and Samerchua W. Fruit and vegetable, and sodium consumption among Buddhist monks in Phichit Province: findings and challenges. Proceeding of the Research and Innovation for Sustainable Mental and Social Development in Thailand 40 Era Conference. Nan, Thailand 2018, p. 441-51. (in Thai).

Kuramasuwan B, Howteerakul N, Suwannapong N and Rawdaree P. Diabetes, impaired fasting glucose, daily life activities, food and beverage consumption among Buddhist monks in Chanthaburi province, Thailand. International Journal of Diabetes in Developing Countries. 2012; 33: 23-8.

Angkatavanich J, Wisetrit W, Sangtien A and Somburanakul P. A study of life style, food characteristics, and nutritional status of monks, novices, and Buddhists in 4 regions of Thailand. Bangkok: Thai Health Promotion Foundation, 2014. (in Thai).

Sifa S. The study of health promoting behavior of monks in Pattani province. Pattani: Prince of Songkla University, 2017. (in Thai).

Polvan S. Factors associated with quality of life among Buddhist monks with chronic disease in Saraburi province, Thailand. Bangkok: Mahidol University, 2009.

Tunsatean P. Quality of life among Thai Buddhist monks with chronic illnesses at Priest hospital. Bangkok: Mahidol University, 2007.

Phonwiset K. Factors associated with quality of life among monks with chronic illness, Priest Hospital. Bangkok: Mahidol, 2011. (in Thai).

Pornprasert P, Praneart K and Pornprasert A. Quality of life of the Thai Budhist monks with chronic illnesses at chaloemphrakiat 60 phansa nawamintarachini hospital Ubon Ratchatani province. Humanities and Social Sciences Journal Ubonratchathani Rajabhat University. 2016, 7: 89-100. (in Thai)

Phraratpariyad, Phrakhrusoponpariyatsutee, Phrakhruphisansorakit, Singmanee C, Samerchua W and Suksatit B. Predictors of health-related quality of life among Buddhist monks in Phrayao province. Journal of Royal Thai Army Nurses. 2018, 19: 78-87. (in Thai).

Aekplakorn W, Kessomboon P, Sangthong R, et al. Urban and rural variation in clustering of metabolic syndrome components in the Thai population: results from the fourth National Health Examination Survey 2009. BMC Public Health. 2011; 11: 854.

Siradapuvadol N. Battle of the bulge: Thailand strives to bring monk obesity crisis under control. Thailand: The Guardian, 2018.

Singh B, Arora S, Goswami B and Mallika V. Metabolic syndrome: A review of emerging markers and management. Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews. 2009; 3: 240-54.

Meigs JB. The metabolic syndrome (insulin resistance syndrome or syndrome X). Jan 15, 2019 ed.: Uptodate, 2019.

Hays RD and Morales LS. The RAND-36 measure of health-related quality of life. Annals of medicine. 2001; 33: 350-7.

Katano S, Nakamura Y, Nakamura A, et al. Relationship between health-related quality of life and clustering of metabolic syndrome diagnostic components. Qual Life Res. 2012; 21: 1165-70.

Slagter SN, van Vliet-Ostaptchouk JV, van Beek AP, et al. Health-related quality of life in relation to obesity grade, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and inflammation. PLoS One. 2015; 10: e0140599.

Margiotta DPE, Basta F, Dolcini G, Batani V, Navarini L and Afeltra A. The relation between, metabolic syndrome and quality of life in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. PLoS One. 2017; 12: e0187645.

Tziallas D, Kastanioti C, Kostapanos MS, Skapinakis P, Elisaf MS and Mavreas V. The impact of the metabolic syndrome on health-related quality of life: a cross-sectional study in Greece. Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2012; 11: 297-303.

Alcubierre N, Martinez-Alonso M, Valls J, et al. Relationship of the adherence to the Mediterranean diet with health-related quality of life and treatment satisfaction in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a post-hoc analysis of a cross-sectional study. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2016; 14: 69.

Maruf FA, Akinpelu AO and Salako BL. Self-reported quality of life before and after aerobic exercise training in individuals with hypertension: a randomised-controlled trial. Applied psychology Health and well-being. 2013; 5: 209-24.

Iqbal Q, Ul Haq N, Bashir S and Bashaar M. Profile and predictors of health related quality of life among type II diabetes mellitus patients in Quetta city, Pakistan. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2017; 15: 142.

Ababio GK, Bosomprah S, Olumide A, et al. Predictors of quality of life in patients with diabetes mellitus in two tertiary health institutions in Ghana and Nigeria. The nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal. 2017; 24: 48-55.

Cochran WG. Sampling Techniques. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1977.

Lee G, Yang SJ and Chee YK. Assessment of healthy behaviors for metabolic syndrome among Korean adults: a modified information-motivation-behavioral skills with psychological distress. BMC Public Health. 2016; 16: 518.

Poungkaew A, Panitrat R, Saneha C, Na Ayuthdaya KS and T S. Model development for promoting food consumptions behaviors of monks: Monks’ perspectives. Journal of Health Science Research. 2018; 12: 81-91. (in Thai).

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 4 > >>