Elevated Urinary Iron, Zinc and Nickel Associate with Increased Oxidative Stress in Bladder Cancer Patients

Authors

  • Chawalit Saelim Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
  • Julin Opanuraks Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
  • Charnchai Boonla Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
  • Maturada Patchsung Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
  • Piyaratana Tosukhowong Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand

Keywords:

iron, zinc, nickel, oxidative stress, bladder cancer

Abstract

Objective: To determine urinary calcium, magnesium and heavy metals in patients with bladder cancer. Whether levels of urinary elements were associated with oxidative stress markers and patientsû occupation were investigated.

Design: Analytical observational study

Methods: Forty-one patients with bladder cancer (aged 62.5+12.4 years) and 29 healthy controls (aged of 68.2+13.1 years) were recruited for the study. Urinary levels of 18 elements, i.e., arsenic, calcium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, lithium, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead, stibium, selenium, strontium, vanadium and zinc were analyzed. Urinary total antioxidant status (TAS) and plasma protein carbonyl concentration, as oxidative stress biomarkers were measured.

Results: Plasma protein carbonyl content in patients was significantly greater than that in controls. Inversely, urinary TAS was significantly decreased in patients group compared to the controls. The urinary levels of iron, zinc and nickel in bladder cancer group was significantly higher, while calcium, magnesium, lithium, arsenic, strontium and lead were lower, than the control group. Urinary nickel (Spearmanûs rho=0.463, p<0.001) and zinc (Spearmanûs rho=0.295, p=0.014) were positively correlated with protein carbonyl content. Urinary iron (Spearmanûs rho=-0.254, p=0.034), nickel (Spearmanûs rho=-0.453, p<0.001) and zinc (Spearmanûs rho=-0.269, p=0.025) were inversely correlated with urinary TAS. A trend of higher urinary iron in patients with high grade tumor (n=23) compared to those with low grade (n=18) was observed, although it was not statistically significant. Urinary nickel and zinc in patients who were mining and metal workers were higher than in patients worked in farms and those worked in offices, respectively.

Conclusion: Urinary levels of iron, nickel and zinc were elevated in patients with bladder cancer. The elevation of these elements was associated with an increased oxidative stress. We hypothesized that iron, zinc and nickel may play an important role in tumorigenesis of the bladder in Thai patients.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Messing EM. Urothelial tumors of the bladder In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Novick AC, Partin AW, Peters CA, editors. Campbell-Walsh Urology 9th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 2007. p. 2407.

Jemal A, Siegel R, Ward E, Hao Y, Xu J, Thun M. Cancer statistics. CA Cancer J. Clin. 2009; 59: 225-49.

Mitra AP, Birkhahn M, Penson DF, Cote RJ. Molecular screening for bladder cancer. In UpToDate,ed. BD Rose.Waltham, MA.2009; UpToDate. http://www.uptodate.com. In press.

Pelucchi C, Bosetti C, Negri E, Malvezzi M, La Vecchia C. Mechanisms of disease: the epidemiology of bladder cancer. Nat. Clin. Pract. Urol 2006; 3: 327-40.

Cote RJ, Mitra AP, Amin MB. Bladder and urethra. In: Weidner N,Cote RJ, Suster S, Weiss LM, editors. Modern Surgical Pathology. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2009. In press.

Ward EM, Sabbioni G, DeBord DG, Teass AW, Brown KK, et al. Monitoring of aromatic amine exposures in workers at a chemical plant with a known bladder cancer excess. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 1996; 88: 1046-52.

Hutaha S. Urinary bladder. In: Khuhaprema T, Srivatanakul P, Sriplung H, Wiangnon S, Sumitsawan Y, Attasara P. editors. Cancer in Thailand Vol. IV 1998-2000. Bangkok: Bangkok Medical Publisher, 2007; 61-62.

Sadetzki S, Bensal D, Blumstein T, Novikov I, Modan B. Selected risk factors for transitional cell bladder cancer. Med Oncol. 2000; 17(3): 179-82.

Porru S, Aulenti V, Donato F, Boffetta P, Fazioli R, Cosciani CS, et al. Bladder cancer and occupation: a case-control study in northern Italy. Occup Environ Med. 1996; 53(1): 6-10.

Volanis D, Kadiyska T, Galanis A, Delakas D, Logotheti S, Zoumpourlis V. Environmental factors and genetic susceptibility promote urinary bladder cancer. Toxicol Lett. 2010; 193(2): 131-37.

Galanis A, Karapetsas A, Sandaltzopoulos R. Metal-induced carcinogenesis, oxidative stress and pypoxia signaling. Mutat Res. 2009; 674: 31-35.

Yuan JM, Chan KK, Coetzee GA, Castelao JE, Watson MA, Bell DA, et al. Genetic determinants in the metabolism of bladder carcinogens in relation to risk of bladder cancer. Carcinogenesis 2008; 29: 1386-93.

Reid TM, Feig DI, Loeb LA. Mutagenesis by metal-incuced oxygen radicals. Environ Health Perspect. 1994; 102: 57-61.

Yilmaz IA, Akçay T, Cakatay U, Telci A, Ataus S, Yalçin V. Relation between bladder cancer and protein oxidation. Int Urol Nephrol. 2003; 35(3): 345-50.

Chiou CC, Chang PY, Chan EC, Wu TL, Tsao KC, Wu JT. Urinary 8 hydroxydeoxyguanosine and its analogs as DNA marker of oxidative stress: development of an ELISA and measurement in both bladder and prostate cancers. Clin Chim Acta. 2003; 334(1-2): 87-94.

Levine RL, Williams JA, Stadtman ER, Shacter E. Carbonyl assays for determination of oxidatively modified proteins. Methods Enzymol 1994; 233: 346-57.

Downloads

Published

2010-06-30

How to Cite

Saelim, C., Opanuraks, J., Boonla, C., Patchsung, M., & Tosukhowong, P. (2010). Elevated Urinary Iron, Zinc and Nickel Associate with Increased Oxidative Stress in Bladder Cancer Patients. Insight Urology, 31(1), 52–62. Retrieved from https://he02.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/TJU/article/view/252341

Issue

Section

Original article