Effects of Arm Swing Exercise Program on Blood Sugar Level, Nutritional status and Perceived Self-Efficacy for Exercise in Persons with Uncontrolled Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Main Article Content

Ratchanok Phonyiam, RN, MNS
Sangthong Terathongkum, RN, PhD (Nursing), ACNP,
Jiraporn Lininger, RN, PhD (Nursing)

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:
This experimental research design was aimed at determining the effects of an Arm Swing Exercise (ASE) Program on blood sugar levels (HbA1c), nutritional status and perceived self-efficacy for exercise in persons with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

MATERIALS AND MEDTHODS:
Fifty-eight participants who met the research criteria were randomly selected into two groups: an experimental group receiving the ASE Program and a control group receiving routine nursing care. Data from demographic characteristics, perceived self-efficacy for exercise, HbA1c and nutritional status were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, and ANCOVA.

RESULTS:
The experimental group had significantly lower HbA1c, higher skeletal muscle and perceived self-efficacy for exercise compared to before the Program (p < 0.01; p < 0.05; p < 0.001, respectively); and significantly decreased waist circumference and increase perceived self-efficacy for exercise compared to the control group (p < 0.01; p < 0.001, respectively).

CONCLUSION:
The ASE program is effective and efficient in controlling HbA1c and improving nutritional status.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
1.
Phonyiam R, Terathongkum S, Lininger J. Effects of Arm Swing Exercise Program on Blood Sugar Level, Nutritional status and Perceived Self-Efficacy for Exercise in Persons with Uncontrolled Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. BKK Med J [Internet]. 2019Oct.23 [cited 2020Jul.15];14(2):34. Available from: https://he02.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/bkkmedj/article/view/222531
Section
Original Article

References

1. International Diabetes Federation.IDF Diabetes Atlas Seventh Edition, 2015a.(Accessed January 5, 2017, at file:///C:/Users/ Administrator/Downloads/%20IDF_Atlas%202015_UK.pdf.)
2.  International Diabetes Federation.Thailand, 2015b. (Accessed January 24, 2017, athttps://www.idf.org/membership/wp/ Thailand.)
3. Kiadaliri AA, Najafi B, Mirmalek-Sani M. Quality of life in people with diabetes: a systematic review of studies in Iran.J Diabetes Metab Disord 2013;12(54):1-10.
4. American Diabetes Association.Standards of medical care in diabetes,2016. (Accessed March 13, 2017, at http://care. diabetesjournals.org/content/suppl/2015/12/21/39. Supplement_1.DC2/2016-Standards-of-Care.pdf.)
5. International Diabetes Federation.Complication of Diabetes, 2014. (Accessed January28, 2017, at http://www.idf.org/ complications-diabetes.)
6. Moreau A, Aroles V, Souweine G, et al. Patient versus general practitioner perception of problems with treatment adherence in type 2 diabetes: From adherence to concordance. EJGP 2009;15(3):147-53.
7. Phetarvut S, Watthayu N, Suwonnaroop, N. Factors predicting diabetes self-management behavior among patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. J Nurs Sci 2011;29(4):18.26.
8. Leelayuwat N, Tunkumnerdthai O, Donsom M,et al. An alternative exercise and its beneficial effects on glycaemic control and oxidative stress in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2008;82:5-8.
9. Anusorn S. Physical activity therapy with arm swing exercise (5thed.). Bangkok:Sukapap-jai; 2014.
10. Leelayuwat N, Tunkumnerdthai O, Donsom M, et al. Effects of arm exercise on metabolic parameters in type 2 diabetic patients. Endocrine Abstracts 2006;11:229.
11. Stanford KI, Goodyear LJ. Exercise and type 2 diabetes: molecular mechanisms regulating glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. Adv Physiol Educ 2014;38(4):308-14.
12. Tunkamnerdthai O, Auvichayapat P, Donsom M, et al. Improvement of pulmonary function with arm swing exercise in patients with type 2 diabetes. J PhysTherSci 2015;27(3): 649-54.
13. Mavros Y, Kay S, Simpson KA, et al. Reductions in C-reactive protein in older adults with type 2 diabetes are related to improvements in body composition following a randomized controlled trial of resistance training. JCSM 2014;5:111-20.
14. Kittipeerachol P, Asawachaisuwikrom W, Junprasert S. Effects of self-regulation program on arm swing exercise behavior and blood sugar of diabetes patients in community. J Nurs Burapha University 2012; 20(4):21-32.
15. Bureau of Non Communicable Disease.Summary data report of persons with well-control diabetes mellitus and hypertension in 2013, 2014. (Accessed March 28, 2017, at http://www. thaincd.com/information-statistic/non-communicable-disease- data.php.)
16. Bandura A. Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company;1997.
17. Erdfelder E, Faul F, Buchner A. GPOWER: A general power analysis program. Behav Res Meth Instrum Comput 1996;28(1):1-11.
18. Sathukhun V. The efficacy of integrated diabetic program on glycemic control in type 2 diabetic patient. J Heal Sci 2009;18(3):414-27.
19. Terathongkum S, Kittipimpanon K, Wanna J. Effect of arm swing exercise program on blood sugar level, and nutritional status of persons with diabetes type 2 in community. Research report. Ramathibodi School of Nursing, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University; 2016.
20. Kalyani RR, Corriere M, Ferrucci L. Age-related and diseaserelated muscle loss: the effect of diabetes, obesity, and other diseases. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2014;2(10):819-29.
1. International Diabetes Federation.IDF Diabetes Atlas Seventh Edition, 2015a.(Accessed January 5, 2017, at file:///C:/Users/ Administrator/Downloads/%20IDF_Atlas%202015_UK.pdf.)
2.  International Diabetes Federation.Thailand, 2015b. (Accessed January 24, 2017, athttps://www.idf.org/membership/wp/ Thailand.)
3. Kiadaliri AA, Najafi B, Mirmalek-Sani M. Quality of life in people with diabetes: a systematic review of studies in Iran.J Diabetes Metab Disord 2013;12(54):1-10.
4. American Diabetes Association.Standards of medical care in diabetes,2016. (Accessed March 13, 2017, at http://care. diabetesjournals.org/content/suppl/2015/12/21/39. Supplement_1.DC2/2016-Standards-of-Care.pdf.)
5. International Diabetes Federation.Complication of Diabetes, 2014. (Accessed January28, 2017, at http://www.idf.org/ complications-diabetes.)
6. Moreau A, Aroles V, Souweine G, et al. Patient versus general practitioner perception of problems with treatment adherence in type 2 diabetes: From adherence to concordance. EJGP 2009;15(3):147-53.
7. Phetarvut S, Watthayu N, Suwonnaroop, N. Factors predicting diabetes self-management behavior among patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. J Nurs Sci 2011;29(4):18.26.
8. Leelayuwat N, Tunkumnerdthai O, Donsom M,et al. An alternative exercise and its beneficial effects on glycaemic control and oxidative stress in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2008;82:5-8.
9. Anusorn S. Physical activity therapy with arm swing exercise (5thed.). Bangkok:Sukapap-jai; 2014.
10. Leelayuwat N, Tunkumnerdthai O, Donsom M, et al. Effects of arm exercise on metabolic parameters in type 2 diabetic patients. Endocrine Abstracts 2006;11:229.
11. Stanford KI, Goodyear LJ. Exercise and type 2 diabetes: molecular mechanisms regulating glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. Adv Physiol Educ 2014;38(4):308-14.
12. Tunkamnerdthai O, Auvichayapat P, Donsom M, et al. Improvement of pulmonary function with arm swing exercise in patients with type 2 diabetes. J PhysTherSci 2015;27(3): 649-54.
13. Mavros Y, Kay S, Simpson KA, et al. Reductions in C-reactive protein in older adults with type 2 diabetes are related to improvements in body composition following a randomized controlled trial of resistance training. JCSM 2014;5:111-20.
14. Kittipeerachol P, Asawachaisuwikrom W, Junprasert S. Effects of self-regulation program on arm swing exercise behavior and blood sugar of diabetes patients in community. J Nurs Burapha University 2012; 20(4):21-32.
15. Bureau of Non Communicable Disease.Summary data report of persons with well-control diabetes mellitus and hypertension in 2013, 2014. (Accessed March 28, 2017, at http://www. thaincd.com/information-statistic/non-communicable-disease- data.php.)
16. Bandura A. Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company;1997.
17. Erdfelder E, Faul F, Buchner A. GPOWER: A general power analysis program. Behav Res Meth Instrum Comput 1996;28(1):1-11.
18. Sathukhun V. The efficacy of integrated diabetic program on glycemic control in type 2 diabetic patient. J Heal Sci 2009;18(3):414-27.
19. Terathongkum S, Kittipimpanon K, Wanna J. Effect of arm swing exercise program on blood sugar level, and nutritional status of persons with diabetes type 2 in community. Research report. Ramathibodi School of Nursing, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University; 2016.
20. Kalyani RR, Corriere M, Ferrucci L. Age-related and diseaserelated muscle loss: the effect of diabetes, obesity, and other diseases. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2014;2(10):819-29.