Predicting Factors of Successful Aging among Community Dwelling Older Adults in Thimphu, Bhutan

Main Article Content

Lobzang Dorji, RN, MNS
Pornchai Jullamate, RN, PhD
Rarcharneepon Subgranon, RN
Edwin Rosenberg, RN, PhD


OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study aimed to study predicting factors between perceived self-efficacy, social support, educational level, perceived health status, life satisfaction, and successful aging among community dwelling older adults.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: A descriptive, correlational predictive design was used to collect data at Thimphu, Bhutan during April to May, 2018. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 90 older adults from four villages. Structured questionnaire was used to gather data on 8 explanatory and 5 outcome variables. Instruments were the General Self-Efficacy Scale, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, the Perceived Health Status scale, the Life Satisfaction Index for the Third Age-Short Form and the Successful Aging Inventory. Descriptive statistics and standard multiple regression analysis were used to describe the sample and examine the predicting factors.

RESULTS: Multiple regression analysis showed perceived self-efficacy, social support, educational level and life satisfaction significantly predicted successful aging, accounting for 58% of the variance (R2 = 0.58, F5,84 = 22.89, p < 0.001). Standardized beta coefficient was obtained for perceived self-efficacy (β = 0.38, p = < 0.001), social support (β = 0.31, p = < 0.001), life satisfaction (β = 0.25, p = < 0.001) and educational level (β = 0.23, p = < 0.05).

CONCLUSION: It was concluded that perceived self-efficacy, social support, educational level and life satisfaction can predict successful aging among community dwelling older adults in Thimphu, Bhutan. Therefore, implementing intervention programs upon the significant predicting factors to enhance successful aging of community dwelling older adults is recommended.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Dorji L, Jullamate P, Subgranon R, Rosenberg E. Predicting Factors of Successful Aging among Community Dwelling Older Adults in Thimphu, Bhutan. BKK Med J [Internet]. 2019Feb.20 [cited 2020Jul.16];15(1):38. Available from:
Original Article


1. Van Leeuwen IM, Vera J, Wolkenhauer O. Dynamic energybudget approaches for modelling organismal ageing. PhilosTrans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2010;365(1557):3443-54.
2. Cha NH, Seo EJ, Sok SR. Factors influencing the successfulaging of older Korean adults. Contemp Nurse 2012;41(1):78-87.
3. World health organization. World health statistic 2012.Geneva, Switzerland;2012.
4. United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs.World population ageing 2017:United Nation;2017
5. National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, USDepartment of health and human services, U.S. Departmentof State. Why population aging matters: A global perspective.(Accessed November 5, 2017 from files/2017-06/WPAM.pdf).
6. Długosz Z, Raźniak P. Risk of population aging in Asia.Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences 2014;120:36-45.
7. Dorji N, Dunne MP, Seib C, et al. Quality of life among seniorcitizens in Bhutan: Associations with adverse lifeexperiences, chronic diseases, spirituality, and socialconnectedness. Asia Pac J Public Health. 2017;29(1):35-46.
8. Rapp K, Becker C, Cameron ID, et al. Femoral fracture ratesin people with and without disability. Age Ageing.2012;41(5):653-8.
9. Sousa RM, Ferri CP, Acosta D, et al. Contribution of chronicdiseases to disability in elderly people in countries with lowand middle incomes: A 10/66 dementia research grouppopulation-based survey. The Lancet, 2009;374(9704):1821-30.
10. Depp CA, Jeste DV. Definitions and predictors of successfulaging: A comprehensive review of larger quantitative studies.Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 2006;14(1):6-20.
11. Martin P, Kelly N, Kahana B, et al. Defining successful aging.The Gerontologist 2014;55(1): 14-25.
12. Cosco TD, Stephan BCM, Brayne C, et al. Education andsuccessful aging trajectories: A longitudinal population-basedlatent variable modelling analysis. Can J Aging 2017;36(4):427-34.
13. Baltes PB, Baltes MM. Psychological perspectives onsuccessful aging: The model of selective optimization withcompensation. Successful aging: Perspectives from thebehavioral Sciences 1990;1(1):1-34.
14. Rowe JW, Kahn RL. Human aging: Usual and successful.Science 1987;237(4811):143-9.
15. Rowe JW, Kahn RL. Successful aging. The Gerontologist1997;37(4):433-40.
16. Flood M. Successful aging: A concept analysis. J TheoryConstr Test 2002;6(2):105-8.
17. Young Y, Frick KD, Phelan EA. Can successful aging andchronic illness coexist in the same individual? A multidimensionalconcept of successful aging. J Am Med Dir Assoc.2009;10(2):87-92.
18. Arias-Merino ED, Mendoza-Ruvalcaba NM, Arias-MerinoMJ, et al. Prevalence of successful aging in the elderly inwestern Mexico. Curr Gerontol Geriatr Res 2012;1-6.
19. Kim HK. Factors affecting successful aging among male eldersin Korea. J Converg Infor Technol 2013;8(14):341-50.
20. Carter A, Breen L, Yaruss JS, et al. Self-efficacy and qualityof life in adults who stutter. J Fluency Disord 2017;54:14-23.
21. McMullin JA, Cairney J. Self-esteem and the intersection ofage, class, and gender. J Aging Stud 2004;18(1):75-90.
22. Ross CE, Wu CL. Education, age, and the cumulativeadvantage in health. J Health Soc Behav 1996:104-20.
23. Van Oort FV, van Lenthe FJ, Mackenbach JP. Cooccurrenceof lifestyle risk factors and the explanation of education inequalitiesin mortality: results from the GLOBE study. PrevMed 2004;39(6):1126-34.
24. Wilkins K. Social support and mortality in seniors. PublicHealth Rep 2003;14(3):21-34.
25. Mendes de Leon CF, Glass TA, Berkman LF. Socialengagement and disability in a community population ofolder adults: The new haven EPESE. Am J Epidemio2003;157(7):633-42.
26. Fiori KL, Antonucci TC, Cortina KS. Social network typologiesand mental health among older adults. J Gerontol B PsycholSci Soc Sci 2006; 61(1):P25-32.
27. Engelhardt H, Buber I, Skirbekk V, et al. Social involvement,behavioural risks and cognitive functioning among olderpeople. Ageing Soc 2010;30(5):779-809.
28. Yamashita T, López EB, Stevens J, et al. Types of learningactivities and life satisfaction among older adults in urbancommunity-based lifelong learning programs. J Act AdaptAging. 2017;41(3):239-57.
29. Jefferies K, Gale TM. 6-CIT: six-item cognitive impairmenttest. In cognitive screening instruments. Springer, London.2013: 209-18.
30. Tabachnick BG, Fidell LS. Multiple regression. Usingmultivariate statistics 2001;3:709-811.
31. Schwarzer R, Jerusalem M. Optimistic self-beliefs as aresource factor in coping with stress. In extreme stress andcommunities: Impact and intervention 1995 (pp. 159-177).Springer,Dordrecht.
32. Zimet GD, Dahlem NW, Zimet SG, et al. The Multidimensionalscale of perceived social support. J Pers Assess1988;52:30
33. Cheng ST, Chan AC. The multidimensional scale of perceivedsocial support: dimensionality and age and genderdifferences in adolescents. Per Individ Dif 2004;37(7), 1359-69.
34. Lorig K. Chronic disease self-management: A model fortertiary prevention. Am Behav Sci. 1996;39(6):676-83.
35. Neugarten BL, Havighurst RJ, Tobin SS. The measurementof life satisfaction. J Gerontol 1961;16(2):134-43.
36. Troutman M, Nies MA, Small S, et al. The development andtesting of an instrument to measure successful aging. ResGerontol Nurs 2011;4(3): 221-32.
37. Flood M. A Mid-Range Nursing Theory of Successful Aging.J Theory Constr Test 2005;9(2):35-9.
38. Cha ES, Kim KH, Erlen JA. Translation of scales in crosscultural research: Issues and techniques. J Adv Nurs.2007;58(4):386-95.
39. Frisch MB. Quality of life therapy: Applying a life satisfactionapproach to positive psychology and cognitive therapy. NewJersey: John Wiley & Sons; 2005.
40. Trieu NT, Jullamate P, Piphatvanitcha N. Factor related tosuccessful aging among older adults in Danang, Vietnam.J Nurs Heal Sci 2015;10 (3):38-44.
41. Pender NJ, Murdagh C, Parson MA. Health Promot Pract, 6thed. New Jersey:Prentice Hall;2011.
42. Howie LO, Troutman-Jordan M, Newman AM. Social supportand successful aging in assisted living residents. EducGerontol. 2014;40(1):61-70.
43. Ross CE, Wu CL. The links between education and health.Am Sociol Rev 1995;60(5):719-45.
44. Meng X, D’arcy C. Successful aging in Canada: prevalenceand predictors from a population-based sample of older adults.Gerontology. 2014;60(1):65-72.
45. Mendes de Leon, CF, Glass TA, Berkman LF. Socialengagement and disability in a community population ofolder adults. Am J Epidemiol 2003;157(7), 633-642.
46. Centre for Bhutan Studies. Gross national happiness. KMTprinting, Thimphu,Bhutan;2015.
47. Fisher BJ. Successful aging, life satisfaction, and generativityin later life. Int J Aging Hum Dev. 1995;41(3):239-50.
48. Koltko-Rivera ME. Rediscovering the later version ofMaslow’s hierarchy of needs: Self-transcendence andopportunities for theory, research, and unification. Rev GenPsycho 2006;10(4):302-17.