Risk of Exposing to Prohibited Substances in Sports from Stakeholders in Thai Athletes


  • Thanawut Saengboon Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ubonratchathani University
  • Sawaeng Watcharathanakij Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ubonratchathani University


Prohibited Substances, Stakholders, Risk, Thailand National Athletes


Background: Obtaining prohibited substances intentionally or unintentionally in athletes may occur because of athletes or stakeholders. This can result in negative health effect of athletes and their future.

Objective: The objectives of this survey research were to quantify the risk of receiving prohibited substances from stakeholders in Thai national athletes and identify factors associated with risk of exposing to prohibited substances. Method: This is a crosssectional survey research. The sample was selected by multi-stage sampling. Data were collected by using questionnaire comprising two parts: demographic data and risk of obtaining prohibited substances from stakeholders with 5-point Likert scale (1=Absolutely, 5=Absolutely not). Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics. Statistical hypotheses were analyzed by one sample t-test and ordinal logistic regression with 5% type I error rate.

Results: Of 264 athletes sampled from 30 sports, 139 were males. The average age was 23.25 years. The maximum average score of obtaining prohibited substances was by pharmacist (2.34) while the lowest score was from sports association executives (1.98). However, the average scores from all stakeholder groups were significantly less than 3 (p-value<0.005). Athletes with more than 5-10 years’ experience were more likely to receive prohibited substances, compared with those with experiences ≤5 years, from executives of sports association (OR=2.53, p-value=0.006), nurses (OR=1.95, p-value=0.040), physiotherapists (OR=2.55, p-value=0.005), sports psychologists (OR=2.80, p-value=0.002), sports scientists (OR=2.25, p-value=0.015), sports nutritionists (OR=2.39, p-value=0.008), sports physiologists (OR=2.24, p-value=0.013), sports educators (OR=1.98, p-value=0.033) and team managers (OR=1.99, p-value=0.034).

Conclusion: Thai national athletes are less likely to obtain prohibited substances from all stakeholders. Athletes with greater than 5-10 years’ experience are more likely to be exposed to prohibited substances from some groups of stakeholders than those with ≤5 years’ experience. Therefore, athletes and stakeholders should focus on prohibited substances in sports to prevent negative consequences.


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How to Cite

Saengboon T, Watcharathanakij S. Risk of Exposing to Prohibited Substances in Sports from Stakeholders in Thai Athletes. J Chulabhorn Royal Acad [Internet]. 2022 Jul. 11 [cited 2022 Oct. 3];4(3):121-32. Available from: https://he02.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/jcra/article/view/254769



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