Sex Difference in Response to Signs and Symptoms among Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

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Nantiya Watthayu
Duangjai Rattanathanya
Wiyada Khongkaew
Supinda Ruangjiratain


         Purpose: To examine differences between men and women in response to signs and symptoms among patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS).
         Design: Secondary analysis of existing data.
         Methods: An obtained existing data contained a total of 148 patients with ACS who were receiving care services at an out-patient unit in a tertiary hospital. The response to signs and symptoms of the patients were measured using the Response to Symptom Questionnaire. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was .67. Descriptive statistics, t-test, chi square and Fisher exact test were used for secondary analysis.
         Main findings: The findings revealed that ACS patients were mostly male (64.2%). Most women had symptoms occurred at home and in the company of family members. However, male patients had symptoms occurred at work more than women (χ2 = 9.07, p = .011). In cognitive response, the majority of male patients were not aware of signs and symptoms of ACS. (χ2 = 6.94, p = .031) and waited for sign and symptoms to go away than women (χ2 = 16.47, p = .002). Findings on emotional response demonstrated that male patients experienced less severe pain (χ2 = 6.560, p
= .028) and had more control over the signs and symptoms (χ2 = 8.89, p = .012) and less anxiety comparing to female. (χ2 = 8.46, p = .015) Women and men did not differ in behavior response (χ2 = 6.465, p = .347) by rest and wait to observe the sign and symptoms. Others’ responses to symptoms differ between men and women by suggesting to rest and taking medication among men and by taking to the hospitals among women (χ2 = 13.248, p = .03).
         Conclusion and recommendations: The study findings found the differences between men and women in response to signs and symptoms of ACS except the behavior response. The findings suggest the need of educating people to have correct knowledge about signs and symptoms to reduce delay in seeking care.


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Watthayu, N., Rattanathanya, D., Khongkaew, W., & Ruangjiratain, S. (2018). Sex Difference in Response to Signs and Symptoms among Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome. Nursing Science Journal of Thailand, 36(3), 46–58. Retrieved from
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