Caregivers’ Needs and Met Needs for Involvement in Pain Relief from Needle-related Medical Procedure in Children at PICU Perceived by Caregivers and Nurses

Main Article Content

Penrat Kowpairoj
Sudaporn Payakkaraung
Apawan Nookong


           Purpose: To compare needs and met needs of caregiver involvement for pain relief from needle-related medical procedure in critically ill pediatric patients admitted in pediatric intensive care units as perceived by caregivers and professional nurses.

          Design: Descriptive comparative design.

          Methods: The sample comprised 68 caregivers and 72 nurses from 3 hospitals in Bangkok with the use of convenience sampling technique. Tools for data collection included a general information questionnaire for caregivers and critically ill pediatric patients, a record form about medical treatment for critically ill pediatric patients, a general information questionnaire for nurse, questionnaires of needs and met needs for caregiver’s involvement in pain relief from needle-related medical procedure perceived by caregivers and nurses. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and t-test.

          Main findings: Caregivers’ needs and met needs for involvement in pain relief from needle-related medical procedure in critically ill pediatric patients were significantly different as perceived by caregivers (t = 8.17, p < .001) and by nurses (t = 7.38, p < .001). Perceived needs and perceived met needs between caregivers and nurses were not different at significance level .05 (t = .27, p > .05; t = - 1.29, p > .05, respectively).

          Conclusion and recommendations: Perceptions of caregivers are in line with that of the nurses; that is, needs are greater than met needs. The results suggest that healthcare professionals should have a practice guideline of procedural pain management for the critically ill pediatric patients, with involvement of caregivers in pain relief activities at every stage of needle-related medical procedure.

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How to Cite
Kowpairoj, P. ., Payakkaraung, S., & Nookong, A. (2021). Caregivers’ Needs and Met Needs for Involvement in Pain Relief from Needle-related Medical Procedure in Children at PICU: Perceived by Caregivers and Nurses. Nursing Science Journal of Thailand, 39(4), 55–69. Retrieved from
Research Papers


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