Pain, Pain Management and Pain Management Outcomes in Chest Trauma Patients: The Preliminary Study

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Sahas Bilalee
Khomapak Maneewat
Wipa Sae-Sia


Chest trauma patients experience pain, particularly in the acute phase. Knowledge of the phenomena
of pain, management strategies, and pain management outcomes are an integral part of the holistic approach
to pain in chest trauma patients to provide a basis for adequate pain management. The objectives of this
study were to describe pain, pain management, and pain management outcomes in patients with chest
trauma. An observational study of 21 participants was conducted at the trauma ward of a university hospital
in southern Thailand. A multidimensional pain assessment tool assessed the holistic aspects of pain in the
first day of admission. The American Pain Society Patient Outcome Questionnaire evaluated the primary
pain management outcomes and a spirometer measured lung vital capacity as the secondary pain outcome.
Descriptive statistics were performed to determine frequency percentage, mean, and standard deviations of
the data. The participants reported severe pain on admission; the mean (SD) numerical rating scale was
8.00 (1.34). Fentanyl intravenous injection was prescribed as needed for most of the participants (95.20%).
More than half of the participants (61.90%) used cold compressions as a non-pharmacological strategy. The
average pain intensity gradually decreased from 8.05 (day 1) to 4.43 (day 5), while lung vital capacity
gradually increased from 1.05 L (day 1) to 1.71 L (day 5).
Severe pain continued to be experienced among chest trauma patients. The results regarding
inappropriate pain management modality and inadequate pain management outcome raises the concern to
develop an effective pain management program for chest trauma patients.

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How to Cite
Bilalee, S., Maneewat, K., & Sae-Sia, W. (2017). Pain, Pain Management and Pain Management Outcomes in Chest Trauma Patients: The Preliminary Study. Journal of Research in Nursing-Midwifery and Health Sciences, 37(Supplement), 51–59. Retrieved from
Research Articles Supplement