Factors Related to Activity of Daily Living Among Community Dwelling Older Adults with Low Muscle Strength

Main Article Content

Wilaipun Somboontanont
Supavadee Thiengtham


This descriptive research study was aimed to explore the relationship between dependency and other
related factors of low muscle strength community dwelling elders. The sample composed of seventy six
community dwelling older adults with low muscle strength. Data were collected using questionnaire including
Barthel Activity of Daily Living Index, Instrumental Activity of Daily Living Index, Thai Geriatric Depression
Scale, Family relationship questionnaire, and Social Support questionnaire. The data were analyzed using
descriptive statistic and Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation Coefficient.
The results revealed that the mean age of elders was 71.37 years old (SD = 6.32). The sample
had low muscle strength with mean basic and instrumental ADL score of 19.55 and 11.68 (SD = 0.81,
0.91). Depression was negatively associated with basic activity of daily living (r= -0.221, p<0.05). Family
relationship was associated with basic and instrumental activity of daily living (r= 0.197, p<0.05; r= 0.261,
p<0.01). However, social support was not associated with both basic and instrumental activity of daily living
(r= 0.161; r= 0.077, p>0.05).
Interventions to maximize muscle strength and prevent muscle mass loss in the community dwelling
elders with low muscle strength and lower score on complex activity of daily living are needed in order to
prevent sarcopenia afterward. Furthermore, family relationship promotion and prevention of depression are
needed in order to promote independent living among community dwelling elders in the future.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Somboontanont, W., & Thiengtham, S. (2018). Factors Related to Activity of Daily Living Among Community Dwelling Older Adults with Low Muscle Strength. Journal of Research in Nursing-Midwifery and Health Sciences, 38(2), 110–123. Retrieved from https://he02.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/nur-psu/article/view/132029
Original Articles


1. Cruz-Jentoft AJ, Baeyens JP, Bauer JM, et al. Sarcopenia: European consensus on definition and diagnosis. Age and Ageing. 2010 ;39: 412-23.

2. Pongchaiyakul C, Limpawattana P, Kotruchin P, et al. Prevalence of sarcopenia and associated factors among Thai population. JBMM. 2013; 31(3):346-50.

3. Hirani V, Blyth F, Naganathan V, et al. Sarcopenia is associated with incident disability, institutionalization, and mortality in community-dwelling older men: The concord health and ageing in men project. JAMDA. 2015; 16(7): 607-13.

4. Carmeli E, Imamb B, Merrickc J. The relationship of pre-sarcopenia (low muscle mass) and sarcopenia (loss of muscle strength) with functional decline in individuals with intellectual disability (ID). Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2012; 55:181-5.

5. Kvamme J-M, Grønli O, Florholmen J, et al. Risk of malnutrition is associated with mental health symptoms in community living elderly men and women: The tromsø study. BMC Psychiatry 2011; 11(1):112.

6. Tramontano A, Veronese N, Sergi G, et al. Prevalence of sarcopenia and associated factors in the healthy older adults of the peruvian andes. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2017; 68:49-54.

7. Bahat G, Saka B, Tufan F, et al. Prevalence of sarcopenia and its association with functional and nutritional status among male residents in a nursing home in Turkey. Aging Male. 2010;13(3):211-4.

8. Thiengtham S, Somboontanont W, Leelahakul V, et al. Physical activity, nutritional status and depression related to sarcopenia in community dwelling older adults. J Nurs Sci. 2015; 38(4):1-10.

9. Stoever K, Heber A, Eichberg S, et al. Sarcopenia and predictors of skeletal muscle mass in elderly men with and without obesity. Gerontol Geriatr Med. 2017;3:1-8. doi: 10.1177/2333721417713637

10. Schaap LA, Koster A, Visser M. Adiposity, muscle mass, and muscle strength in relation to functional decline in older persons. Epidemiol Rev. 2013; 35: 51-65. doi: 10.1093/epirev/mxs006

11. Santos Ld, Cyrino ES, Antunes M, et al. Sarcopenia and physical independence in older adults: The independent and synergic role of muscle mass and muscle function. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2017;8:245-50. doi: 10.1002/jcsm.12160

12. Ishizaki T, Watanabe S, Suzuki T, et al. Predictors for functional decline among nondisabled older Japanese living in a community during a 3-Year Follow-Up. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2000; 48(11):1424-9.

13. Hairi NN, Cumming RG, Naganathan V, et al. Loss of muscle strength, mass (Sarcopenia), and quality (specific force) and its relationship with functional limitation and physical disability: The concord health and ageing in men project. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2010; 58(11): 2055-62. doi:10.1111/j.1532-5415.2010.03145.x

14. Gomes Cdos S, Maciel AC, Freire Ado N, et al. Depressive symptoms and functional decline in an elderly sample of urban center in northeastern Brazil. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2014; 58(2): 214-8. doi: 10.1016/j.archger.2013.10.009

15. Bozo, Toksabay NE, Kürüm O. Activities of daily living, depression, and social support among elderly turkish people. J Psychol. 2010;143(2):193-205. doi: 10.3200/JRLP.143.2.193-206.

16. Yeom HA, Fleury J, Keller C. Risk factors for mobility limitation in community-dwelling older adults: A social ecological perspective. Geriatr Nurs. Volume. 2008; 29(2):133-40. doi: 10.1016/j.gerinurse.2007.07.002

17. Freese BT, Lawson TG. Betty neuman system model. In: Alligood MR, Tomey AM, editors. Nursing theory and their work. Marryland Heights, MO: Mosby; 2010. p. 309-34.

18. Institute of Geriatric Medicine. Thai mini-mental state examination, TMMSE 2002. Nonthaburi: Institute of Geriatric Medicine. 2002. Thai.

19. Cognitive Rehabilitation Group. Train geriatric depression scale (TGDS). SMJ. 1994; 46 (1):1-9.

20. Waiwatthana V. The relationship between individual characteristics and quality of life of elders, Suratthani province [thesis]. [Bangkok]. Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University; 2007.

21. Gasemgitvatana S. A causal model of caregiver role stress among wives of chronically ill patients. [dissertation] [Nakhon Prathom]. Mahidol University; 1993.

22. Jittapankul S, Suriyawongpaisan P. Health problems of Thai elders. Bangkok: Holistic Publishing; 1999.

23. Giampaoli S, Ferrucci L, Cecchi F, et al. Hand-grip strength predicts incident disability in non-disabled older men. Age and ageing. 1999; 28(3):283-8.

24. Oppewal A, Hilgenkamp TIM, Wijck Rv, et al. Physical fitness is predictive for a decline in daily functioning in older adults with intellectual disabilities: Results of the HA-ID study. Res Dev Disabil. 2014;35 2299-315.

25. Snih SA, Markides KS, Ottenbacher KJ, Raji MA. Hand grip strength and incident ADL disability in elderly Mexican Americans over a seven-year period. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2004;16:481-6.

26. Rantanen T, Avlund K, Suominen H, et al. Muscle strength as a predictor of onset of ADL dependence in people aged 75 years. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2002;14(3 Suppl): 10-5.

27. Taekema DG, Gussekloo J, Maier AB, et al. Handgrip strength as a predictor of functional, psychological and social health. A prospective population-based study among the oldest old. Age and Ageing. 2010; 39: 331-7.

28. Shin K-R, Kang Y, Jung D, et al. A Study on the depression, somatic symptom, activities of daily living for the elderly women in an Urban Area. J Korean Acad Nurs. 2007;37(7):1131-8.

29. Wada T, Ishine M, Sakagami T, et al. Depression in Japanese community-dwelling elderly-prevalence and association with ADL and QOL. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2004; 39:15-23.

30. Wada T, Ishine M, Sakagami T, et al. Depression, activities of daily living, and quality of life of community-dwelling elderly in three Asian countries: Indonesia, Vietnam, and Japan. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2005; 41(3): 271-80. doi: 10.1016/j.archger.2005.03.003

31. Cummings SM, Neff JA, Husaini BA. Functional impairment as a predictor of depressive symptomatology: The role of race, religiosity, and social support. Health Soc Work. 2003;28(1):23-32. doi:10.1093/hsw/28.1.23

32. Drageset J. The importance of activities of daily living and social contact for loneliness: A survey among residents in nursing homes. Scand J Caring Sci. 2004; 18(1): 65-71.

33. Merz E-M, Huxhold O. Wellbeing depends on social relationship characteristics: Comparing different types and providers of support to older adults. Ageing Soc. 2010; 30(5): 843-57. doi:10.1017/S0144686X10000061

34. Puteh SE, Bakar IM, Borhanuddin B, et al. A Prevalence study of the activities of daily living (ADL) dependency among the elderly in four districts in Selangor, Malaysia. J Epid Prev Med. 2015;1(2). doi: 10.19104/jepm.2015.110

35. Seeman TE, Bruce ML, McAvay GJ. Social network characteristics and onset of ADL disability: MacArthur studies of successful aging. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 1996; 51(4): S191-200.