The Post Concussion Symptom Experience and Quality of Life in Indonesian Persons With Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

Main Article Content

Fikriyanti -
Luppana Kitrungrote
Praneed Songwathana


Background: Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI) is the most common type in cases of TBI. Up to 50% of patients experience post concussion symptoms (PCS) after mTBI, which impairs their quality of life (QoL). Despite the high prevalence, existing studies on PCS and QoL of Indonesian persons with mTBI are limited.

Objectives: To identify the PCS experience, the QoL level of persons with mTBI, and the correlation between PCS severity and QoL.

Methods: One hundred persons with mTBI were recruited from one referral hospital in Aceh province. Questionnaires consisted of three parts: 1) Demographic and Health-related Data Form, 2) the Rivermead Post Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire (RPQ), and 3) the Quality of Life after Brain Injury Overall Scale (QOLIBRI-OS). The contents of these questionnaires were validated by three experts. The intra-class correlation coefficient of RPQ and the internal consistency reliability coefficient of QOLIBRI-OS yielded values of .90 and .91 respectively. Descriptive statistics and Pearson’s correlation analysis were used.

Results: Within 2-60 weeks after mTBI, the average symptoms persons experienced were seven (M = 6.7, SD = 3.17). The frequency of symptoms were occurred sometimes (M = 2.37, SD = 0.50) with a low severe level (M = 1.03, SD = 0.51). The top five symptoms commonly found were dizziness, headache, fatigue, forgetfulness and taking longer to think, respectively. Regarding the severe level of PCS, hearing disturbance (M = 1.56, SD = 0.53) and blurred vision (M = 1.49, SD = 0.85) were ranked as the first and the second respectively. Overall, the mean scores of total and each item of QoL were at a moderate level. The PCS severity was significant negatively related to QoL (r = - .33, p < .01).

Conclusion: PCS could occur at the stage initial and become beyond years post mTBI. Health care providers should increase strategies to reduce PCS severity to improve the QoL of Indonesian persons with mTBI over the short and long term periods.

Article Details

How to Cite
-, F., Kitrungrote, L., & Songwathana, P. (2014). The Post Concussion Symptom Experience and Quality of Life in Indonesian Persons With Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. Journal of Research in Nursing-Midwifery and Health Sciences, 34(2), 1–16. Retrieved from
Original Articles