Main Article Content
This study was a quasi-experimental research with a two group pretest-posttest design. The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of the Information and Emotional Support Program on uncertainty of illness and stress coping among caregivers of traumatic brain injury patients. The samples comprised 58 traumatic brain injury patients’ caregivers in neurosurgical ward, Ratchaburi hospital. The samples was conveniently selected according to the specific criteria. They were assigned into the experimental or the control groups, Each group consisted of 29 participants. The experimental group received the Information and Emotional Support Program for 5 days and the control group received the usual nursing care. Data were collected using the demographic of patients and caregivers data form and uncertainty of illness and stress coping questionnaires. The reliability of uncertainty of illness and stress coping questionnaire using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient were .76 and .71, respectively. The data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics and ANCOVA.
The results revealed that after receiving the program, the experimental group had significantly lower uncertainty of illness than the control group [F(1,55) = 44.697, p< .001]. The experimental group had significantly better stress coping than the control group [F(1,55) = 23.590, p < .001]. Hence, nurses may add this program to the usual nursing care in order to promote better quality of care provided by caregivers of traumatic brain injury patients.
Vaniyapong T. Management of closed head injury and brain death [Internet]. Chang Mai: Chang Mai University; 2015 [cited 2016 Aug 12]. Available from: http://www.med.cmu.ac.th/dept/surgery/2017/images/
World Health Organization. Road safety in the south-east asia region 2015 [Internet]. India: World Health Organization, Regional Office for South-East Asia; 2016 [cited 2016 Aug 25]. Available from: http://www. who.int/violence_injury prevention/road_ safety_status/2015/en/
Bureau of Non Communicable Disease, Department of Disease Control, Ministry of Public Health. Annual report 2015 [Internet]. Nonthaburi: Bureau of Non Communicable Disease; 2016 [cited 2016 Aug 25]. Available from: http://www.thaincd.com.
Royal College of surgeons of Thailand. Head injury [Internet]. Bangkok: Royal College; 2008 [cited 2016 Aug 12]. Available from: http://www. rcst.or.th/
Rojsurakitti T. Head injury [Internet]. Bangkok: Health and medicine; 2009 [cited 2016 Aug 25]. Available from: https://www.slideshare.net/drterd/head-injury-2619523
Kiatsunthorn K. Overview of the head injury [Internet]. Bangkok: Srinakharinwirot University; 2018 [cited 2018 Oct 19]. Available from: http://med.swu.ac.th/surgery/images/1_OverviewOfHeadInjury.pdf
Ponglaohapun U, Wongwatunyu S, Khuwatsamrit K. Nursing activities and factors related to increased intracranial pressure in head injured patients. Rama Nurs J. 2009; 15(2): 221-32. Thai.
Sawasdinaruenart S, Sae-Sia W, Songwattana P. Effects of information and emotional support program on caregivers stress and stress impacts in caring for patients with traumatic brain injury in critical phase. Princess of Naradhiwas University Journal. 2013; 5(2): 1-13. Thai.
Boursamarrang P, Binhosen V, Pakdevong N. Effectiveness of communication program on uncertainty in illness and coping strategies in family members of critical ill patients. Journal of Nursing and Health Care. 2014; 32(4): 76-84. Thai.
Khiewchaum R. Effect of traumatic brain injury. Journal of Phrapokklao Nursing College. 2016; 27(1): 103-11. Thai.
Mishel MH. Theories of uncertainty in illness. In: Smith MJ, Liehr PR, editors. Middle range theory for nursing. 3 rd ed. New York: Springer; 2014.
Keenan A, Joseph L. Traumatic brain injured patients during critical and acute care: a qualitative study. Canadian J Neurosci Nurs. 2010; 32(3): 25-35.
Leibach GG, Trapp SK, Perrin PB, et al. Family need and TBI caregiver mental health in Guadalajara, Mexico. Neurorehabilitation. 2014; 34 (1): 167-75. doi: 10.3233/nre-131013
Rutherford LG, Wenckstern TV. Trauma information group: A level I trauma center’s integrated approach to family. J Trauma Nurs. 2016; 23(6): 357-60. doi: 10.1097/jin.0000000000000247
Chronister J, Chan F, Sasson-Gelman EJ, et al. The association of stress-coping variables to quality of life among caregivers of individuals with traumatic brain injury. Neurorehabilitation. 2010; 27(2010): 49-62.
Lehan TJ, Stevens LF, Arango-Lasprilla JC, et al. Balancing act: The influence of adaptability and cohesion on satisfaction and communication in families facting TBI in Maxico. Neurorehabilitation. 2012; 30(2012): 75-86.
Prasat Neurological Institute. Clinical practice guidelines: dementia [Internet]. Bangkok: Tanapress; 2014 [cited 2016 Aug 25]. Available from: http://www.thaidementia.org/Uploads/files/
Sukamolson S. The effect sizes: research intervention of significance. Pasa paritat Journal. 2010; 25: 26-38. Thai.
Harkness K, Arthur H, McKelvie R. The measurement of uncertainty in caregivers of patients with heart failure. J Nurs Meas. 2013; 21(1): 23-42.
Patsadu P. Family caregiver’s stress coping and management of behavioral and emotional problems following traumatic brain injury [dissertation]. [Bangkok]: Mahidol University; 2013. 215 p.
Poompan P, Tilokskulchai F, Prasopkittikun T, et al. Factors influencing parents’ uncertainty in chronically ill children with intubation during critical period. J Nurs Sci. 2012; 30(3): 15-24. Thai.
Liengpun N, Teerarungsikul N, Sananreangsak S. Predictors of uncertainty among parents of children with acyanotic congenital heart disease. Journal of Nursing Science Chulalongkorn University. 2017; 29(2): 76-86. Thai.
Oyesanya T. The experience of the hospital stay for patients with traumatic brain injury and their family caregivers [doctoral dissertation]. [Wisconsin]: University of Wisconsin Madison; 2017. 107 p.
Thammarux T, Chanruangvanich W, Thosingha O, et al. Impact of a family-empowering programme on the coping ability of the family caregivers of postoperative neurosurgical patients in a neurosurgical ICU. Thai Journal of Nursing Council. 2017; 32(2): 49-64. Thai.
Mishel MH. Theory development [Internet]. 2008 [cited 2017 Sep 20]. Available from: https://sites.google. com/a/northgeorgia.edu/merle-mishel-middle-range-nursing-theorist/home/theory-development
Boonkongrat S. Effect of the information and emotional support on uncertainty among patients of critically ill children admitted to pediatric intensive care unit [dissertation]. [Chiang Mai]: Chiang Mai University; 2008. 114 p.
Lhaosupab N, Monkong S, Sirapo-ngam Y. Effect of stress management program for relatives of critically ill patients on relatives’ stress. Rama Nurs J. 2014; 20(1): 67-81.Thai.
Piyakong D. The effect of engagement interventions on uncertainty and coping of Thai family members of patients in a coma [doctoral dissertation]. [Florida]: Florida Atlantic University; 2008. 121 p.