Pandemic of Covid 19 and myopic progression in children

Main Article Content

Worapot Srimanan


Myopia is a condition in which the radiating light from objects focuses on the front plane of the retina. This condition leads to a poor visual perception that could affect the quality of life, such as headaches, eye strain, and squinting. Visual symptoms could affect the quality of life by decreasing work performance or learning capability. Numerous sequelae are associated with myopic eye and correlate with long-term visual disabilities, especially in high myopia, such as vitreous degeneration, retinal tear, retinal detachment, myopic macular degeneration, cataract, and open-angle glaucoma. Nowadays, myopia is a global concern and a major socioeconomic problem. The prevalence is rising, especially in Asian descent, compared with Europe and American descent. Multifactorial factors lead to myopia, including genetic factors, prolonged near work, and decreased outdoor time. Since the outbreak of covid-19, lifestyle change includes social distancing, online learning platforms, and working from home. They lead to myopia occurrence and myopia progression. Awareness about the occurrence and progression of myopia in the covid era may lead to better patient care and proper health promotion.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

บทความฟื้นวิชา (Subject Review)


Morgan IG, Ohno-Matsui K, Saw S-M. Myopia [Internet]. Vol. 379, The Lancet. Elsevier BV; 2012. p. 1739–48. Available from:

Curtin BJ. Physiologic vs Pathologic Myopia: Genetics vs Environment [Internet]. Vol. 86, Ophthalmology. Elsevier BV; 1979. p. 681–91. Available from:

Holden BA, Fricke TR, Wilson DA, Jong M, Naidoo KS, Sankaridurg P, et al. Global Prevalence of Myopia and High Myopia and Temporal Trends from 2000 through 2050 [Internet]. Vol. 123, Ophthalmology. Elsevier BV; 2016. p. 1036–42. Available from:

Ding B-Y, Shih Y-F, Lin LLK, Hsiao CK, Wang I-J. Myopia among schoolchildren in East Asia and Singapore [Internet]. Vol. 62, Survey of Ophthalmology. Elsevier BV; 2017. p. 677–97. Available from:

He M, Xiang F, Zeng Y, Mai J, Chen Q, Zhang J, et al. Effect of Time Spent Outdoors at School on the Development of Myopia Among Children in China [Internet]. Vol. 314, JAMA. American Medical Association (AMA); 2015. p. 1142. Available from:

Lingham G, Mackey DA, Lucas R, Yazar S. How does spending time outdoors protect against myopia? A review [Internet]. Vol. 104, British Journal of Ophthalmology. BMJ; 2019. p. 593–9. Available from:

Grzybowski A, Kanclerz P, Tsubota K, Lanca C, Saw S-M. A review on the epidemiology of myopia in school children worldwide [Internet]. Vol. 20, BMC Ophthalmology. Springer Science and Business Media LLC; 2020. Available from:

Pan C-W, Ramamurthy D, Saw S-M. Worldwide prevalence and risk factors for myopia [Internet]. Vol. 32, Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics. Wiley; 2011. p. 3–16. Available from:

Yingyong P. Refractive errors survey in primary school children (6-12 year old) in 2 provinces: Bangkok and Nakhonpathom (one year result). J Med Assoc Thai. 2010 Oct;93(10):1205-10.

Yingyong P. Risk factors for refractive errors in primary school children (6-12 years old) in Nakhon Pathom Province. J Med Assoc Thai. 2010 Nov;93(11):1288-93.

Haarman AEG, Enthoven CA, Tideman JWL, Tedja MS, Verhoeven VJM, Klaver CCW. The Complications of Myopia: A Review and Meta-Analysis [Internet]. Vol. 61, Investigative Opthalmology & Visual Science. Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO); 2020. p. 49. Available from:

Morgan I, Rose K. How genetic is school myopia? [Internet]. Vol. 24, Progress in Retinal and Eye Research. Elsevier BV; 2005. p. 1–38. Available from:

Marcus MW, de Vries MM, Montolio FGJ, Jansonius NM. Myopia as a Risk Factor for Open-Angle Glaucoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis [Internet]. Vol. 118, Ophthalmology. Elsevier BV; 2011. p. 1989-1994.e2. Available from:

Wang J, Li Y, Musch DC, Wei N, Qi X, Ding G, et al. Progression of Myopia in School-Aged Children After COVID-19 Home Confinement [Internet]. Vol. 139, JAMA Ophthalmology. American Medical Association (AMA); 2021. p. 293. Available from:

Zhang X, Cheung SSL, Chan H-N, Zhang Y, Wang YM, Yip BH, et al. Myopia incidence and lifestyle changes among school children during the COVID-19 pandemic: a population-based prospective study [Internet]. British Journal of Ophthalmology. BMJ; 2021. p. bjophthalmol-2021-319307. Available from:

Aslan F, Sahinoglu-Keskek N. The effect of home education on myopia progression in children during the COVID-19 pandemic [Internet]. Eye. Springer Science and Business Media LLC; 2021. Available from:

Ma M, Xiong S, Zhao S, Zheng Z, Sun T, Li C. COVID-19 Home Quarantine Accelerated the Progression of Myopia in Children Aged 7 to 12 Years in China [Internet]. Vol. 62, Investigative Opthalmology & Visual Science. Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO); 2021. p. 37. Available from:

Ma D, Wei S, Li S-M, Yang X, Cao K, Hu J, et al. The Impact of Study-at-Home During the COVID-19 Pandemic on Myopia Progression in Chinese Children [Internet]. Vol. 9, Frontiers in Public Health. Frontiers Media SA; 2022. Available from:

Ma D, Wei S, Li S-M, Yang X, Cao K, Hu J, et al. Progression of myopia in a natural cohort of Chinese children during COVID-19 pandemic [Internet]. Vol. 259, Graefe’s Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology. Springer Science and Business Media LLC; 2021. p. 2813–20. Available from:

Hu Y, Zhao F, Ding X, Zhang S, Li Z, Guo Y, et al. Rates of Myopia Development in Young Chinese Schoolchildren During the Outbreak of COVID-19 [Internet]. Vol. 139, JAMA Ophthalmology. American Medical Association (AMA); 2021. p. 1115. Available from:

Picotti C, Sanchez V, Fernandez Irigaray L, Iurescia A, Iribarren R. Rapid progression of myopia at onset during home confinement [Internet]. Journal of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Elsevier BV; 2022. Available from:

Kaiti R, Sharma IP, Dahal M. Review on current concepts of myopia and its control strategies [Internet]. Vol. 14, International Journal of Ophthalmology. Press of International Journal of Ophthalmology (IJO Press); 2021. p. 606–15. Available from:

Németh J, Tapasztó B, Aclimandos WA, Kestelyn P, Jonas JB, De Faber J-THN, et al. Update and guidance on management of myopia. European Society of Ophthalmology in cooperation with International Myopia Institute [Internet]. European Journal of Ophthalmology. SAGE Publications; 2021. p. 112067212199896. Available from: