Concentration of microbe in surfaces of hospital ambulances

  • Nutthajit Onmek Prince of Songkla University, Surat Thani Campus
  • Kosin Prabnarong Prince of Songkla University, Surat Thani Campus
  • Thichada Phuangwan Prince of Songkla University, Surat Thani Campus
  • Sasanee Srithai Prince of Songkla University, Surat Thani Campus
Keywords: emergency ambulances, microbial contamination, cleaning method


This research aimed to study the contamination of bacteria and mould in the 5emergency ambulances from 2 hospitals; 1) Sampling 10 areas in each car before and after cleaning by swabbing method. 2) Evaluate the vehicle cleaning methods and exposure risk for staff and patients.

The results showed that hospital A had the highest amount of bacteria before and after cleaning. The highest steering position was 64.15x104 CFU / m2 and 35.17x104 CFU / m2, respectively. Hospital B had the highest amount of fungus. The oxygen tank was the location with the highest amount of fungus before and after cleaning. The cleaning methods resulted in significant reductions in mould and bacteria at α = 0.05. Most founded bacteria was Bacillus Gram-negative, which are pathogenic bacteria. And the type of fungus that was found is Aspergillus.

All results showed that the staff had an important role in increasing or decreasing the number of microorganisms. Most of the contamination comes from staff activities such as the cleaning method, frequency of cleaning and the behaviour of the staff etc.


Download data is not yet available.


Anaissie EJ, Stratton SL, Dignani MC, Summerbell RC, Rex JH, Monson TP, et al. (2002). Pathogenic Aspergillus Species Recovered from a Hospital Water System: A 3-Year Prospective Study. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 34(6): 780–789.

Claus D. (1992). A standardized Gram staining procedure. World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 8(4): 451–2.

Concepts C, Peleg AY, Hooper DC. (2010). Hospital-Acquired Infections Due to Gram-Negative Bacteria. N Engl J Med. 13;362(19): 1804-13.

Hargreaves M, Parappukkaran S, Morawska L, Hitchins J, He C, Gilbert D. (2003). A pilot investigation into associations between indoor airborne fungal and non-biological particle concentrations in residential houses in Brisbane, Australia. Sci Total Environ. 312 (1–3): 89–101.

Lowe JJ, Hewlett AL, Iwen PC, Smith PW, Gibbs SG. (2013). Evaluation of Ambulance Decontamination Using Gaseous Chlorine Dioxide. Prehospital Emerg Care. 17(3): 401–8.

Lucia M, Bouzada M, Silva VL, Augusto F, Moreira S, Silva GA, et al. (2010). Antimicrobial resistance and disinfectants susceptibility of persistent bacteria in a tertiary care hospital. Journal of Microbiology and Antimicrobials. 2(8): 105-112.

Sanmartín P, DeAraujo A, Vasanthakumar A, Mitchell R. (2015). Feasibility study involving the search for natural strains of microorganisms capable of degrading graffiti from heritage materials. Int Biodeterior Biodegrad. 103: 186–190.
How to Cite
Onmek, N., Prabnarong, K., Phuangwan, T., & Srithai, S. (2019). Concentration of microbe in surfaces of hospital ambulances. UBRU Journal for Public Health Research, 8(1), 28-38. Retrieved from