Factors Related to Perceived Stigma Among Thai Women Infected with HIV

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Janejira Tejapeng


Perceived stigma in Thai women infected with HIV could be a barrier between patients and healthcare services, which could cause inappropriate treatment and increase the severity of the disease. These problems may then affect their quality of life. This descriptive correlational study aimed to examine the relationship of factors related to the perceived stigma of Thai women infected with HIV and explore the relationship between personal factors: age, educational level, marital status, duration of diagnosis with HIV infection, social support, and perceived stigma of Thai women infected with HIV. The perceived stigma can be divided into four aspects, including the personalized stigma, disclosure, negative self-image, and public attitudes aspects.

The purposive sample included Thai women in the age range of 18-60 years old, which comprised eighty women infected with HIV recruited from tertiary hospitals in Thailand. The questionnaires were composed of a demographic data questionnaire, perceived stigma questionnaire of people infected with HIV, developed from the literature review by Berger et al. (2001), and social support questionnaires of people infected with HIV, modified from the concept of Weiss (1974) by Suwannaporn Mitsuwan (2007). The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and inferential analyses, including t-test, Pearson correlation, and Chi-square.

It was shown that the sample group perceived stigma at a medium level. There were significant differences between marital status (p=0.022), age (p=0.01), and perceived stigma among Thai women infected with HIV. However, when analyzing the data of each aspect of perceived stigma, it was found that marital status had the significant influence upon the personalized stigma aspect (p=0.03) and duration of diagnosis with HIV infection had the significant influence upon the public attitudes aspect (p=0.01) and negative self-image aspect (p<0.01), while social support had the significant influence upon the disclosure aspect (p=0.002), personalized stigma aspect (p=0.05), and negative self-image aspect (p<0.003). These findings suggested that health care personnel should organize activities and need to understand the perceived stigma of patients and factors which had significant relationships with perceived stigma to support Thai women infected with HIV, leading to a reduction in perceived stigma


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Tejapeng, J. (2020). Factors Related to Perceived Stigma Among Thai Women Infected with HIV. Vajira Nursing Journal, 22(2), 13–29. Retrieved from https://he02.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/vnj/article/view/241158
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