The environmental contaminate and drug-resistant nosocomial bacterial infection in hospital settings

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warissara jirawathin
Sukhontha Siri
Dusit Sujirarat
Anan Manomaipiboon


This study aimed to determine the quantities and types of drug-resistant nosocomial pathogenic bacteria in indoor air and high-touch surfaces at Vajira Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Navamindradhiraj University. Determine the associated between bacterial load, type, and physical variables with the prevalence of drug-resistant nosocomial bacterial infections. A total of 442 air samples and 1,212 surface swab samples were taken from 41 hospital wards. The air samples were collected by MAS-100® impactor. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and Poisson regression to determine the associated between risk factors with drug-resistant nosocomial bacterial infections at a significance level of p < .05. The results showed Carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (CRAB) was the most frequent drug-resistant bacteria found in air and high-touch surfaces. The highest contamination of drug-resistant in the air and on high-touch surfaces was discovered in MWs. The most often contaminated samples were from blood pressure cuffs. Furthermore, the number of drug-resistant nosocomial bacterial infections who use invasive medical devices was nine, the infection rate was 0.67 times per 1,000 days of a patient admitted. Drug-resistant nosocomial bacterial infections were significantly related to CRAB contamination in air and high-touch surfaces, the number of healthcare workers, and relative humidity in inpatient wards (p<.001). These findings contribute to the development of a guideline for reducing hospital-acquired infection.


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jirawathin, warissara, Siri, S., Sujirarat, D., & Manomaipiboon, A. (2023). The environmental contaminate and drug-resistant nosocomial bacterial infection in hospital settings. Vajira Nursing Journal, 25(1), 58–69. Retrieved from
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