Gingival Zenith of the Maxillary Anterior and Premolar Teeth in Normal Gingiva

Authors

  • Pankhem N, Lertpimonchai A , Sompeewong P

Keywords:

Gingiva, Gingival zenith, Morphology, Esthetics

Abstract

Background : The gingival zenith is an essential clinical parameter to consider during esthetic dental treatment.

Objective : To estimate the gingival zenith position (GZP) and gingival zenith level (GZL) of maxillary anterior teeth and premolar in adults with normal gingiva.

Methods : Sixty healthy volunteers age range of 18-35 years were enrolled. All participants were taken an impression on the upper arch with alginate and pour with Velmix die stone. Indirect measurements on study casts performed by calibrated digital. The GZP of central incisor, lateral incisor, canine, first and second premolar were measured in a medial-lateral direction from the vertical bisecting midline (VBM). The GZL of the lateral incisor was measured in an apical-coronal direction related to the line joining the tangents of the GZP of the ipsilateral central incisor and canine. While the GZL of first and second premolar were recorded by referencing with the perpendicular line to VBM of the ipsilateral canine.

Result : The mean of GZP from 120 teeth per each tooth group in the upper central incisors, lateral incisors, canine, first and second premolars were distally from VBM at 0.41 ± 0.24, 0.22 ± 0.22, 0.13 ± 0.23, 0.18 ± 0.17 and 0.17 ± 0.16 mm, respectively. The mean distance of the GZL for the lateral incisors was 0.60 ± 0.28 mm, in the first premolar and the second premolar were 1.04 ± 0.41 and 1.56 ± 0.59 mm.

Conclusion : This study demonstrated that the mesio-distal positions of gingival zenith on maxillary anterior and premolar teeth were distal to VBM around 0.2-0.5 mm, except canine, which GZP were approximately at VBM. The GZL of the lateral incisors were coronal about 0.5 mm, and the level of the gingival zenith of premolars was coronal approximately 1-2 mm to the perpendicular line of VBM of adjacent canine.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Garber DA, Salama MA. The aesthetic smile: diagnosis and treatment. Periodontol 2000. 1996 ; 11:18-28.

Mattos CM, Santana RB. A quantitative evaluation of the spatial displacement of the gingival zenith in the maxillary anterior dentition. J Periodontol 2008 ; 79:1880-5.

Chu SJ, Tan JH, Stappert CF, Tarnow DP. Gingival zenith positions and levels of the maxillary anterior dentition. J Esthet Restor Dent 2009 ; 21:113-20.

Rufenacht C R. Fundamentalsof Esthetics. Chicago : Quintessence Publishing; 1990.

Magne P, Belser U. Bonded Porcelain Restorations in the Anterior Dentition: A Biomimetic Approach. Chicago : Quintessence Publishing; 2002.

Kapagiannidis D, Kontonasaki E, Bikos P, Koidis P. Teeth and gingival display in the premolar area during smiling in relation to gender and age. J Oral Rehabil 2005 ; 32:830-7.

Hulley SB, Cummings SR, Browner WS, Grady D, Newman TB. Designing clinical research: an epidemiologic approach. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams&Wilkins; 2013.

Loe H. The Gingival Index, the Plaque Index and the Retention Index Systems.J Periodontol 1967 ; 38:610-6.

Humagain M, Rokaya D, Srii R, Dixit S, Kafle D. Gender Based Comparison of Gingival Zenith Esthetics.Kathmandu Univ Med J 2016; 14:148-52.

Pawar B, Mishra P, Banga P, Marawar PP. Gingival zenith and its role in redefining esthetics: a clinical study. J Indian Soc Periodontol 2011 ; 15:135-8.

Zagar M, Knezovic Zlataric D, Carek V. A quantitative evaluation of the distal displacement of the gingival zenith in the maxillary anterior teeth. Coll Antropol 2010 ; 34: 225-8.

Varsha R, Jyotsna S, Joshi N, Vinayak T, Langade D, Roshan S. Quantitative Evaluation of Deviation of Gingival Zenith Position in Maxillary Anterior Dentition. Int J Recent Sci Res 2017; 8:16741-44.

Charruel S, Perez C, Foti B, Camps J, Monnet-Corti V. Gingival contour assessment: clinical parameters useful for esthetic diagnosis and treatment. J Periodontol 2008; 79:795-801.

Duran I, Yilmaz B, Tatar N, Ural C, Guler AU. Determining the localization of premolar zenith positions according to the gingival line. Niger J Clin Pract 2015; 18:273-5.

Published

04-01-2021

How to Cite

1.
Pankhem N, Lertpimonchai A , Sompeewong P. Gingival Zenith of the Maxillary Anterior and Premolar Teeth in Normal Gingiva. j dept med ser [Internet]. 2021 Jan. 4 [cited 2022 Oct. 4];45(3):107-15. Available from: https://he02.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/JDMS/article/view/248644

Issue

Section

Original Article