Gingival Zenith of the Maxillary Anterior and Premolar Teeth in Normal Gingiva


  • Pankhem N, Lertpimonchai A , Sompeewong P


Gingiva, Gingival zenith, Morphology, Esthetics


Background : The gingival zenith is an essential clinical parameter to consider during esthetic dental treatment.

Objective : To estimate the gingival zenith position (GZP) and gingival zenith level (GZL) of maxillary anterior teeth and premolar in adults with normal gingiva.

Methods : Sixty healthy volunteers age range of 18-35 years were enrolled. All participants were taken an impression on the upper arch with alginate and pour with Velmix die stone. Indirect measurements on study casts performed by calibrated digital. The GZP of central incisor, lateral incisor, canine, first and second premolar were measured in a medial-lateral direction from the vertical bisecting midline (VBM). The GZL of the lateral incisor was measured in an apical-coronal direction related to the line joining the tangents of the GZP of the ipsilateral central incisor and canine. While the GZL of first and second premolar were recorded by referencing with the perpendicular line to VBM of the ipsilateral canine.

Result : The mean of GZP from 120 teeth per each tooth group in the upper central incisors, lateral incisors, canine, first and second premolars were distally from VBM at 0.41 ± 0.24, 0.22 ± 0.22, 0.13 ± 0.23, 0.18 ± 0.17 and 0.17 ± 0.16 mm, respectively. The mean distance of the GZL for the lateral incisors was 0.60 ± 0.28 mm, in the first premolar and the second premolar were 1.04 ± 0.41 and 1.56 ± 0.59 mm.

Conclusion : This study demonstrated that the mesio-distal positions of gingival zenith on maxillary anterior and premolar teeth were distal to VBM around 0.2-0.5 mm, except canine, which GZP were approximately at VBM. The GZL of the lateral incisors were coronal about 0.5 mm, and the level of the gingival zenith of premolars was coronal approximately 1-2 mm to the perpendicular line of VBM of adjacent canine.


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How to Cite

Pankhem N, Lertpimonchai A , Sompeewong P. Gingival Zenith of the Maxillary Anterior and Premolar Teeth in Normal Gingiva. j dept med ser [Internet]. 2021 Jan. 4 [cited 2022 Oct. 4];45(3):107-15. Available from:



Original Article