Agreement of Interpretation of Preschool Visual Acuity Tests among Doctor Screeners and a Teacher Screener: Preschool Vision Screening Model in Thailand
Keywords:Child, Vision Screening, Visual Acuity, Eye, Child Care, Ophthalmologists
Background: Polyphenols are essential compounds for anti-inflammation commonly found in green tea (Camellia sinensis). They influence the inflammatory process by controlling and inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokines such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) which is a prominent substance in dental diseases namely periodontal inflammation and oral cancer. However, their quantitative levels of polyphenols depend on geographical locations.Objectives: The aim of this research is to determine the polyphenol levels, important compounds for Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibition, of green tea extracted from various geographical locations in Thailand.Method: 70% Ethanol extraction samplings of green tea products were done in groups representing each province in Thailand. The chemotype levels of polyphenols was determined by total polyphenols (Folin-Ciocalteu method) and total flavonoid. Catechin-specific epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) level was then measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Result: Total polyphenols, total flavonoids, and EGCG content in green tea from each province in Thailand are significantly different (p<0.05). The highest amount of polyphenols and flavonoids is Chiang Rai tea. The highest amount of EGCG is Chiang Mai tea. Anti-inflammatory test results resembled as IC50 are ranked in descending order from Chiang Rai, Assam, Narathiwat and Chiang Mai green tea which corresponding to the amount of important substances in green tea, but there is no statistically significant difference (p< 0.05). Conclusion: Chemotype levels of polyphenols in green tea vary in different cultivation areas ranked in descending order from Chiang Rai province (Assum tea), Narathiwatprovince and Chiang Mai Province. The chemotype levels of polyphenols exhibiting preliminary anti-inflammatory properties correlate directly to the concentration of tea. Accordingly, it is shown that green tea grown in Thailand statistically significantly exhibits anti-inflammatory properties.
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