The analysis of overcrowding rate and The associated factors in Emergency Department (ED), Siriraj Hospital


  • Phruek Arayapisuttigoon Department of Emergency Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University
  • Onlak Ruangsomboon Department of Emergency Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University
  • Tipa Chakorn Department of Emergency Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University


ED crowding, Emergency Department, occupancy rate


Background : Emergency Department (ED) overcrowding has been shown to have an impact on the effectiveness of treatment and could potentially lead to an increased mortality rate. This study aimed to assess the incidence of ED overcrowding and its related factors. A protocol to eliminate such factors and the reduction of unnecessary process could be implemented in the future for the better outcome of ED patients.

Method : A cross-sectional study was conducted at Siriraj Hospital. Adult patients who visited ED during Jan 1,2014 and December 31,2014 were randomly selected. Patients were allocated into two groups, crowding and non-crowding according to the status of ED crowding upon their visit. Baseline characteristics and all treatment process in ED were compared between the two groups. Chi-square test and Mann-Whitney U test was used to analyze the associated factors.

Result : A total of 206 patients were included, 153 patients (74.3%) visited ED in crowding condition. The median waiting time for laboratory result, specialist consultation and admission were 68,15 and 50 minutes, respectively. Median ED length of stay of all patient was 171 minutes, while it was 261 minutes for those who needed hospital admission. There were no statistical significant differences between the two groups. Seven-day mortality was found in 3 (6.4%) and 2 (8.7%) patients of the crowding and non-crowding cohort, respectively.

Conclusion : The rate of ED overcrowding in Siriraj Hospital is 74.3%. There was no statistically significant difference in ED length of stay, mortality rate and waiting time for laboratory results, consultation and admission between patients who visited overcrowding ED and those who visited non-crowding ED.


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How to Cite

Arayapisuttigoon P, Ruangsomboon O, Chakorn T. The analysis of overcrowding rate and The associated factors in Emergency Department (ED), Siriraj Hospital. TJEM [Internet]. 2021 Jul. 8 [cited 2024 Apr. 24];3(1):38-57. Available from: