Main Article Content
Objective: To determine the prevalence of parasitic infection and health risk behaviors among Buddhist monks
Methods: Thirty-six stool samples were collected from monks from Wat Thewarat Kunchon Worawihan, Wat Ratchapha Tikaram Worawihan, Wat Prasat Bunyawat and Wat Bot Samsen. All stool samples were microscopically examined using simple smear and formalin-ethyl acetate concentration technique (FECT). The information regarding health risk behaviors associated to parasitic infection was assessed using questionnaires. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics.
Results: The prevalence of parasitic infection was 5.55 % comprised the pathogenic protozoan Giardia intestinalis (2.78%) and non-pathogenic protozoan Entamoeba coli (2.78%). Helminth infection was not found. Regarding the health risk behaviors associated to parasitic infection, most of the participants have never had eaten raw or undercooked fish (97.06%), salt-fermented fish (63.64%), raw or undercooked pork (90.62%) and raw or undercooked beef (87.50%). Concerning preventive behaviors, more than half always wore shoes when going outside the temple (69.44%), almost all of them drink bottled water (90.91%) , majority of them wash their hands sometimes before eating (66.66%), always washing hands after defecation (69.44%) and after touching pets or stray animals (62.5%). Regarding prevention of the spread behaviors, all monks used sanitary latrine (100%) but the knowledge about parasitic infection was only moderate (51.43%). Most of the participants have never had their stool examination for parasitic infection (91.7%) and more than half (62.86%) have never had anthelmintics.
Conclusion: Although the prevalence of parasite infections among monks is low but the risk behaviors of parasitic infection is still apprehensive. Therefore, monks should be encouraged to enhance healthcare knowledge for health risk reduction including promote appropriate hygiene for the prevention of parasitic infection.These results can be applied for health care planning and promoting the health of monks in the community in the future.
World Health Organization. Prevention and control of intestinal parasitic infections. Report of a WHO Expert Committee.World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser 1987; 749: 1-86.
Sripa B, Kaewkes S, Sithithaworn P, Mairiang E, Laha T, Smout M, et al. Liver fluke induces cholangiocarcinoma. PLoS Med. 2007; 4(7): e201.
Tiwari BR, Chaudhary R, Adhikari N, Jayaswal SK, Poudel TP, Rijal KR. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among school children of Dadeldhura District, Nepal. JHAS 2013; 3(1): 14–6.
Nuchprayoon S, Siriyasatien P, Kraivichian K, Porksakorn C, Nuchprayoon I. Prevalence of parasitic infections among Thai patients at the King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand. J Med Assoc Thai 2002; 85(Supply 1): S415-23.
Puttaruk P, Sirisabhabhorn K. The prevalence of helminths and protozoan infections among patients attending at Thammasat University Hospital during the year 2011 to 2013. Thai Sci Tech J 2014; 22:861-70.
Chonsawat P, Wongphan B. Prevalence of Parasitic Infections in Patients at Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Mahidol University. J Med Tech Assoc Thailand 2017; 45(2): 6073-84.
Bhumisawasdi V, Takerngdej S, Jenchitr W. The Sustained and Holistic Health Care Program for the Priests Commemoration of His Majesty the King’s 60 Years Accession to the Throne (First Phase: February to June 2006). J Med Assoc Thai 2008; 91(Supply 1): 1-12.
Jourdan PM, Lamberton PHL, Fenwick A, Addiss DG. Soil-transmitted helminth infections. Lancet 2018; 391(10117): 252-65.
Seemanee S, Mattavagkul C, Poomrittikul P, Ditajorn R, Trangkasan P. Factors related consumption behaviors of monks and foodstuff dedication behaviors to the monks of people in Phasicharoen District, Bangkok. JNSU 2018;19(37): 22-38.
Davis AN, Haque R, Petri WA Jr. Update on protozoan parasites of the intestine. Curr Opin Gastroentrol 2002; 18(1): 10-4.
Flanagan PA. Giardia--diagnosis, clinical course and epidemiology. A review. Epidemiol Infect 1992; 109: 1-22.
Leelayoova S, Rangsin R, Taamasri P, Naaglor T, Thathaisong U, Mungthin M. Evidence of waterborne transmission of Blastocystis hominis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2004; 70(6): 658-62.
Traub RJ. Ancylostoma ceylanicum, a re-emerging but neglected parasitic zoonosis. Int J Parasitol 2013; 43(12-13): 1009-15.
Croese J, Loukas A, Opdebeeck J, Prociv P. Occult enteric infection by Ancylostoma caninum: a previously unrecognized zoonosis. Gastroenterol 1994; 106(1): 3-12.
Nagakura K, Kanno S, Tachibana H, Kaneda Y, Ohkido M, Kondo K, et al. Serologic differentiation between Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati. J Infect Dis 1990; 162(6): 1418-9.
Narasimham MV, Panda P, Mohanty I, Sahu S, Padhi S, Dash M. Dipylidium caninum infection in a child: a rare case report. Indian J Med Microbiol 2013; 31(1): 82-4.
Okello AL, Thomas LF. Human taeniasis: current insights into prevention and management strategies in endemic countries. Risk Manag Healthc Policy 2017; 10: 107-16.
Sripa B, Kaewkes S, Sithithaworn P, Mairiang E, Laha T, Smout M, et al. Liver fluke induces cholangiocarcinoma. PLoS Med 2007; 4(7): e201.
Ritchie LS. An ether sedimentation technique for routine stool examinations. Bull U S Army Med Dep 1948; 8(4): 326.
McHardy IH, Wu M, Shimizu-Cohen R, Couturier MR, Humphries RM. Detection of intestinal protozoa in the clinical laboratory. J Clin Microbiol 2014; 52(3): 712-20.
Paraemeshwarappa KD, Chandrakanth C, Sunil B. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and the evaluation of different concentration techniques of the stool examination. J Clin Diagn Res 2012; 6(6): 1188-91.
Niamnuy N. The Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infectious disease in Dhonburi district, Bangkok Metropolis and Amphur Pak-tho, Ratchaburi Province. J Med Tech Assoc Thailand 2013; 41(2): 4520-34.
Ortega YR, Adam RD. Giardia: overview and update. Clin Infect Dis 1997; 25(3): 545-9.
Dib HH, Lu SQ, Wen SF. Prevalence of Giardia lamblia with or without diarrhea in South East, South East Asia and the Far East. Parasitol Res 2008; 103(2): 239-51.
Lasek-Nesselquist E, Welch DM, Sogin ML. The identification of a new Giardia duodenalis assemblage in marine vertebrates and a preliminary analysis of G. duodenalis population biology in marine systems. Int J Parasitol 2010; 40(9): 1063-74.
Monis PT, Andrews RH, Mayrhofer G, Ey PL. Molecular systematics of the parasitic protozoan Giardia intestinalis. Mol Biol Evol 1999; 16(9):1135-44.
Thompson RC, Hopkins RM, Homan WL. Nomenclature and genetic groupings of Giardia infecting mammals. Parasitol Today 2000; 16(5): 210-3.
Jariya P, Tesjaroen S, Lertlaituan P, Bedavanij A. Intestinal parasitosis in the monks and novices at Kamphaeng Saen District, Nakhon Pathom Province. Siriraj Hosp Gaz 1989; 41(12): 649-54.
Jariya P, Lertlaituan P, Bedavanij A, Tesjaroen S, Yoolek A, Junnoo V, et al. Prevalence of infection Parasitic infection in children and monks in Bangkok, Saraburi and Nakhon Pathom. Siriraj Hosp Gaz 1991; 43(7): 451-7.
Sripa B, Pairojkul C. Cholangiocarcinoma: lessons from Thailand. Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2008;24(3): 349-56.
Garcia HH, Del Brutto OH. Taenia solium cysticercosis. Infect Dis Clin North Am 2000;14(1): 97-119
Efstratiou A, Ongerth JE, Karanis P. Waterborne transmission of protozoan parasites: Review of worldwide outbreaks - An update 2011-2016. Water Res 2017; 114: 14-22.
Mahmud MA, Spigt M, Bezabih AM, Pavon IL, Dinant GJ, Velasco RB. Efficacy of Handwashing with Soap and Nail Clipping on Intestinal Parasitic Infections in School-Aged Children: A Factorial Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial. PLoS Med 2015; 12(6): e1001837.
Duc PP, Nguyen-Viet H, Hattendorf J, Zinsstag J, Cam PD, Odermatt P. Risk factors for Entamoeba histolytica infection in an agricultural community in Hanam Province, Vietnam. Parasit Vectors 2011; 4: 102.
Monse B, Benzian H, Naliponguit E, Belizario V, Schratz A, Helderman WVP. The Fit for School health outcome study-a longitudinal survey to assess health impacts of an integrated school health programme in the Philippines. BMC Public Health 2013; 13:256.
Robertson ID, Irwin PJ, Lymbery AJ, Thompson RC. The role of companion animals in the emergence of parasitic disease. Int J Parasitol 2000; 30: 1369-77.
Satyal RC, Manandhar S, Dhakal S, Mahato BR, Chaulagain S, Ghimire L, et al. Prevalence of gastrointestinal zoonotic helminths in dogs of Kathmandu, Nepal. Int J Infect Microbiol 2013;2(3): 91-4.
Gizaw Z, Adane T, Azanaw J, Addisu A, Haile D. Childhood intestinal parasitic infection and sanitation predictors in rural Dembiya, northwest Ethiopia. Environ Health Prev Med 2018; 23(1): 26.
Becker MH. The Health Belief Model and Sick Role Behavior: Health Educ Monogr 1974; 2(4): 409-19.
Pender NJ. Health Promotion in nursing practice. 3rd ed. Stamford: CT: Appleton & Lange; 1996. p.97-98.