Risk Factors and Effective Treatments of Postpartum Depression in Young Adult Mothers

Main Article Content

Supitchayanee Pongpidet
Tanaput Surawattanavisetpa
Kawinnart Thanakijborisut
Bhuwasit Seenprachawong
Nahathai Srisuwan
Muchchimaporn Chatkittikunwong
Panida Saengkrajang
Witchapon Promkaew
Chanathip Phaocharoen
Thidarat Thodthankhun
Sarawut Lapmanee


Objective: To determine the associated factors and the effective treatments of postnatal depression in young adult mothers.

Methods: The research articles were searched from the PubMed and Science Direct databases using specific keywords including young adult mother, risk factor, treatment, postpartum, depression.

Results: 14 research articles met the inclusion criteria. Risk factors for postnatal depression divided into biological factors, including age, methods of delivery and implantation of hormonal contraceptives; or psychological factors, involving body shape satisfaction and self-esteem; or social factors consisting of education level, employment and numbers of children. Pharmacological therapy or vitamin D supplementation and non-pharmacological treatment, including home visit psychotherapy and telephone cognitive behavioral therapy could alleviate postpartum depressive symptoms.

Conclusions: This systematic review showed an evidence of risk factors and concerning treatment options for postnatal depression in young adult mothers.

Article Details

How to Cite
Pongpidet, S., Surawattanavisetpa, T., Thanakijborisut, K., Seenprachawong, B., Srisuwan, N., Chatkittikunwong, M., Saengkrajang, P., Promkaew, W., Phaocharoen, C., Thodthankhun, T., & Lapmanee, S. (2021). Risk Factors and Effective Treatments of Postpartum Depression in Young Adult Mothers. Vajira Medical Journal : Journal of Urban Medicine, 65(3), 211–220. https://doi.org/10.14456/vmj.2021.20
Original Articles


Shorey S, Chee CYI, Ng ED, Chan YH, Tam WWS, Chong YS. Prevalence and incidence of postpartum depression among healthy mothers: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Psychiatr Res 2018;104:235–48.

Schaffir J. Biological changes during pregnancy and the postpartum period. In: Wenzel Amy, editor. The Oxford Handbook of Perinatal Psychology. Oxford University Press; 2016.

World Health Organization. Depression and other common mental disorders: global health estimates. World Health Organization [Internet]. 2017 [cited 2020 Dec 15]. Available from: https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/254610.

Ko JY, Rockhill KM, Tong VT, Morrow B, Farr SL. Trends in postpartum depressive symptoms - 27 States, 2004, 2008, and 2012. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2017;66(6):153–8.

Panyayong B. Postpartum depression among Thai women: a national survey. J Med Assoc Thai 2013;96(7):761–7.

O’Hara MW, Swain AM. Rates and risk of postpartum depression: a meta-analysis. Int Review Psychiatry 1996;8:37–54.

Cox JL, Holden JM, Sagovsky R. Detection of postnatal depression: Development of the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. BJPsych 1987;150(6):782–6.

Letourneau N, Stewart M, Dennis CL, Hegadoren K, Duffett-Leger L, Watson B. Effect of homebased peer support on maternal–infant interactions among women with postpartum depression: A randomized, controlled trial. Int J Ment Health Nurs 2011;20(5):345–7.

Reichenheim ME, Moraes CL, Oliveira AS, Lobato G. Revisiting the dimensional structure of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS): empirical evidence for a general factor. BMC Med Res Methodol 2011;11:93.

Bottino MN, Nadanovsky P, Moraes CL, Reichenheim ME, Lobato G. Reappraising the relationship between maternal age and postpartum depression according to the evolutionary theory: Empirical evidence from a survey in primary health services. J Affect Disord 2012;142(1–3):219–24.

Bhandari S, Bullock LF, Bair-Merritt M, Rose L, Marcantonio K, Campbell JC, et al. Pregnant women experiencing IPV: Impact of supportive and non-supportive relationships with their mothers and other supportive adults on perinatal depression: A mixed methods analysis. Issues in Mental Health Nursing 2012;33(12):827–37.

Ammerman RT, Putnam FW, Altaye M, Teeters AR, Stevens J, Van Ginkel JB. Treatment of depressed mothers in home visiting: Impact on psychological distress and social functioning. Child abuse & neglect 2013;37(8):544–54.

Bevan D, Wittkowski A, Wells A. A multiplebaseline study of the effects associated with metacognitive therapy in postpartum depression. J Midwifery Womens Health 2013;58(1):69–75.

Lee SY, Aycock DM, Moloney MF. Bright light therapy to promote sleep in mothers of lowbirth-weight infants: a pilot study. Biol Res Nurs 2013;15(4):398–406.

Simavli S, Kaygusuz I, Gumus I, Usluogulları B, Yildirim M, Kafali H. Effect of music therapy during vaginal delivery on postpartum pain relief and mental health. J Affect Disord 2014;156:194–9.

Ngai FW, Wong PW, Leung KY, Chau PH, Chung KF. The effect of telephone-based cognitivebehavioral therapy on postnatal depression: a randomized controlled trial. Psychother Psychosom 2015;84(5):294–303.

Sweeney AC, Fingerhut R. Examining relationships between body dissatisfaction, maladaptive perfectionism, and postpartum depression symptoms. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs 2015;42(5):551–61.

Vaziri F, Nasiri S, Tavana Z, Dabbaghmanesh MH, Sharif F, Jafari P. A randomized controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation on perinatal depression: in Iranian pregnant mothers. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2016;16(1):1–2.

Wozney L, Olthuis J, Lingley-Pottie P, McGrath PJ, Chaplin W, Elgar F, et al. Strongest families™ managing our mood (MOM): a randomized controlled trial of a distance intervention for women with postpartum depression. Arch Womens Ment Health 2017;20(4):525–37.

Kim Y, Dee V. Sociodemographic and obstetric factors related to symptoms of postpartum depression in Hispanic women in rural California. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs 2018;47(1):23–31.

Drake E, Grush K, Sheeder J, Tocce K. The Association between Immediate Postpartum Etonogestrel Implants and Positive Postpartum Depression Screens in Adolescents and Young Adults. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 2020;33(5):550–4.

Gelaye B, Rondon MB, Araya R, Williams MA. Epidemiology of maternal depression, risk factors, and child outcomes in low-income and middle-income countries. Lancet Psychiatry 2016;3(10):973–82.

Friedman SH, Resnick PJ. Postpartum depression: an update. Women’s Health 2009;5(3):287–95.

Houston KA, Kaimal AJ, Nakagawa S, Gregorich SE, Yee LM, Kuppermann M. Mode of delivery and postpartum depression: the role of patient preferences. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2015;212(2):229.e1–7.

Horibe M, Hane Y, Abe J, Matsui T, Kato Y, Ueda N, et al. Contraceptives as possible risk factors for postpartum depression: A retrospective study of the food and drug administration adverse event reporting system, 2004-2015. Nurs Open 2018;5(2):131–8.

Silveira ML, Ertel KA, Dole N, Chasan-Taber L. The role of body image in prenatal and postpartum depression: a critical review of the literature. Arch Womens Ment Health 2015;18(3):409–21.

Harrison ME, Obeid N, Haslett K, McLean N, Clarkin C. Embodied motherhood: Exploring body image in pregnant and parenting youth. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 2019;32(1):44–50.

Lewis BA, Billing L, Schuver K, Gjerdingen D, Avery M, Marcus BH. The relationship between employment status and depression symptomatology among women at risk for postpartum depression. Womens Health (Lond) 2017;13(1):3–9.

Gebregziabher NK, Netsereab TB, Fessaha YG, Alaza FA, Ghebrehiwet NK, Sium AH. Prevalence and associated factors of postpartum depression among postpartum mothers in central region, Eritrea: a health facility based survey. BMC Public Health 2020;20(1):1614.

Sapkota S, Kobayashi T, Takase M. Impact on perceived postnatal support, maternal anxiety and symptoms of depression in new mothers in Nepal when their husbands provide continuous support during labour. Midwifery 2013;29(11):1264–71.

Sharma V, Sharma P. Postpartum depression: diagnostic and treatment issues. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2012;34(5):436–42. 32. Fitelson E, Kim S, Baker AS, Leight K. Treatment of postpartum depression: clinical, psychological and pharmacological options. Int J Womens Health 2010;3:1–14.

Yang WJ, Bai YM, Qin L, Xu XL, Bao KF, Xiao JL, et al. The effectiveness of music therapy for postpartum depression: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Complement Ther Clin Pract 2019;37:93–101.