Prevalence and Risk Factors of Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine Retinopathy

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Sireedhorn Kurathong
Kornwipa Hemarat
Seerung Noonpradej
Siriporn Manavathongchai


Objective: To evaluate the prevalence and risk factors of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine retinopathy.

Methods: Retrospective cohort study was conducted at Vajira hospital. Medical records of autoimmune patients who received chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine from January 2017 to December 2019 were reviewed.

Results: Of the 177 enrolled patients, 19 patients developed retinopathy. The prevalence of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine retinopathy was 10.7%. 17 patients had the pericentral pattern of retinal change, whereas only 2 patients had the classic parafoveal distribution of retinal damage. Factors associated with retinopathy were duration of chloroquine treatment (p=0.009), cumulative dose of chloroquine (p=0.009) and cumulative dose of chloroquine with hydroxychloroquine (p=0.015). After using multivariate analysis, duration of chloroquine treatment (adjusted OR=1.01; 95%CI 1.00-1.02, p=0.01) and liver disease (adjusted OR=23.72; 95%CI 1.25-448.68, p=0.035) were significant.

Conclusions: The prevalence of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine retinopathy was 10.7%. Factors associated with retinopathy were duration of chloroquine treatment and liver disease. Factors that may associated with retinopathy were cumulative dose of chloroquine, cumulative dose of chloroquine with hydroxychloroquine.


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