Prevalence of the Stratified Risk to Develope Diabetic Foot Ulcer in Type 2 Diabetes Patients

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Neeranat Simasingha
Pich Paholpak
Swangjit Suraamornkul

Abstract

Background: Diabetes is the most common chronic non-communicable disease in Thailand and leads to both small and large vascular complications. Lack of risk assessment to provide preventive advice and proper care of diabetic foot. There will be a chance of diabetic foot ulcers, foot infections, amputation and eventual disability.


Objective: The aims of this study were to collect the prevalence of diabetic foot ulcers and relationship between the risk factors of diabetic foot ulcers.


Method: The cross-sectional descriptive study in type 2 diabetics patients was conducted. Baseline characteristics, foot assessment with monofilament test and ankle-brachial index were collected to stratify risk, according to the International working group on the diabetic foot risk classification system (IWGDF risk classification). The relationship of risk factor also were also analysed.


Result: Three hundred and twenty-four type 2 diabetes patients were studied. The average parameter consists of duration of diabetes 12.95 ± 10.14 years, fasting blood glucose level 161.56 ± 60.68 mg/dL, HbA1C level 8.31 ± 3.39%, eGFR 78.46 ± 25.97 ml/min/1.73m2. According to the International working group on the diabetic foot risk classification system (IWGDF risk classification), category 0 is divided into 299 patients (92.3 percent), category 1 has 21 patients (6.5 percent), category 2 has 2 patients (0.6 percent), category 3 has 2 patients (0.6 percent). There were association between the risk of developing diabetic foot ulcers and the duration of diabetes (p = 0.029), hypertension (p = 0.001), stroke (p = 0.004), creatinine raising (p = 0.044), decreased eGFR (p = 0.001).


Conclusion: The prevalence according to IWGDF risk classification is 92.3% for a very low risk category, while 6.5, 0.6 and 0.6 % for low, moderate and high risk category, respectively. The factors associated to risk stratification of diabetic foot were duration of diabetes, hypertension, stroke, and chronic kidney disease.

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References

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