Cone Shape Structure of Ultraviolet C Device: Effectiveness Against Surrogate Pathogen during COVID-19 Pandemic

Main Article Content

Rawiwan Thanprasertsuk
Tanittha Chatsuwan
Kanitha Patarakul
Jenyuk Lohwacharin
Adisak Duangkaew
Somrat Charuluxananan
Pannika Vorapaluk

Abstract

Introduction: COVID-19 has been declared as a pandemic. Unavoidable roles of anesthesiologist are anesthesia and endotracheal intubation in infected patients requiring surgical operation and suffering respiratory failure, respectively. Ultraviolet C (UVC) has been recommended for disinfecting the operating room in COVID-19 situation. Objective: To study the effectiveness of our UVC device in disinfection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which was used as a surrogate of SARS-CoV-2. Materials and Methods: The UVC device was comprised of 12 UVC lamps. The lamps were assembled in cone shaped. The power and timer of UVC lamps were controlled by mobile application. We studied disinfection effect of UVC device on Pseudomonas aeruginosa which generally tolerates to UVC more than coronavirus and is a common etiology of hospital acquired infection. The microbes were placed on glass and stainless-steel surfaces at 0.5-3 meters from the UVC device. Results: The shorter distance and the longer exposure time were shown to increase killing effect of the device. Irradiation using this UVC device for 3 minutes eradicated P. aeruginosa on both glass and stainless-steel surfaces at least 99.9% (3 log10 reduction) at all tested distances. The effectiveness of killing was appeared to be higher on the bacteria placed on stainless-steel than on the glass surface. Conclusion: This UVC disinfection device was effective in eradicating P. aeruginosa, which is more resistant to UVC than coronavirus. Using this UVC device to disinfect the operating room and other infected area may benefit in COVID-19 situation

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Section
Original articles

References

Statement on the second meeting of the International Health Regulations (2005) Emergency Committee regarding the outbreak of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) [internet]. World Health Organization. [cited 2020 June 11]. Available from: https://www.who.int/news/item/30-01-2020-statement-on-the-second-meeting-of-the-international-health-regulations-(2005)-emergency-committee-regarding-the-outbreak-of-novel-coronavirus-(2019-ncov)

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) Situation Report – 51 [internet]. World Health Organization. [cited 2020 June 11]. Available from: https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200311-sitrep-51-covid-19.pdf?sfvrsn=1ba62e57_10

Miller R, Englund K. Transmission and risk factors of COVID-19. Cleve Clin J Med. 2020. [Epub ahead of print]

Dexter F, Parra MC, Brown JR, Loftus RW. Perioperative COVID-19 Defense: an evidence-based approach for optimization of infection control and operating room management. Anesth Analg. 2020;131(1):37-42.

Woodhall B, Neill RG, Dratz HM. Ultraviolet radiation as an adjunct in the control of post-operative neurosurgical infection; clinical experience 1938-1948. Ann Surg. 1949;129(6):820-5.

Brown IW Jr, Moor GF, Hummel BW, Marshall WG Jr, Collins JP. Toward further reducing wound infections in cardiac operations. Ann Thorac Surg. 1996;62(6):1783-9.

Ritter MA, Olberding EM, Malinzak RA. Ultraviolet lighting during orthopaedic surgery and the rate of infection. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2007;89(9):1935-40.

Reed NG. The history of ultraviolet germicidal irradiation for air disinfection. Public Health Rep. 2010;125(1):15-27.

Simmons S, Dale C, Holt J, Velasquez K, Stibich M. Role of ultraviolet disinfection in the prevention of surgical site infections. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2017;996:255-66.

Song K, Mohseni M, Taghipour F. Mechanisms investigation on bacterial inactivation through combinations of UV wavelengths. Water Res. 2019;163:114875.

Mitchell JB, Sifuentes LY, Wissler A, Abd-Elmaksoud S, Lopez GU, Gerba CP. Modelling of ultraviolet light inactivation kinetics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, Clostridium difficile spores and murine norovirus on fomite surfaces. J Appl Microbiol. 2019;126(1):58-67.

Gora SL, Rauch KD, Ontiveros CC, Stoddart AK, Gagnon GA. Inactivation of biofilm-bound Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria using UVC light emitting diodes (UVC LEDs). Water Res. 2019;151:193-202.

Artichowicz W, Luczkiewicz A, Sawicki JM. Analysis of the radiation dose in UV-disinfection flow reactors. Water. 2020;12:231.

Nerandzic MM, Thota P, Sankar CT, Jencson A, Cadnum JL, Ray AJ, et al. Evaluation of a pulsed xenon ultraviolet disinfection system for

reduction of healthcare-associated pathogens in hospital rooms. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2015;36(2):192-7.

Gallagher RP, Lee TK. Adverse effects of ultraviolet radiation: a brief review. Prog Biophys Mol Biol. 2006;92(1):119-31.

Ultraviolet (UV) Radiation[internet]. American Cancer Society; 2019 [cited 2020 June 14]. Available from: https://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancer-causes/radiation-exposure/uv-radiation.html

Vorapaluk P, Thanprasertsuk R, Chatsuwan T, Patarakul K, Lohwongwatana B, Charuluxananan S, et al. Effectiveness study of disinfection of microbes by innovation robotic UVC radiation: response to COVID-19 pandemic. Thai J Anesthesiol. 2020;46(3)Suppl:8-15.

UV Irradiation Dosage Table[internet]. Light Sources Inc and American Ultraviolet Company; 2014 [cited 2020 June 14]. Available from: https://www.ameri-canairandwater.com/uv-facts/uv-dosage.htm

Tseng CC, Li CS. Inactivation of Virus-Containing Aerosols by Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation. Aerosol Sci Technol. 2005;39(12):1136-42.

Walker CM, Ko G. Effect of ultraviolet germicidal irradiation on viral aerosols. Environ Sci Technol. 2007;41(15):5460-5.

Tseng CC, Li CS. Inactivation of viruses on surfaces by ultraviolet germicidal irradiation. J Occup Environ Hyg. 2007;4(6):400-5.

Ye Y, Chang PH, Hartert J, Wigginton KR. Reactivity of enveloped virus genome, proteins, and lipids with free chlorine and UV254. Environ Sci Technol. 2018;52(14):7698-708.

Lu R, Zhao X, Li J, Niu P, Yang B, Wu H, et al. Genomic characterisation and epidemiology of 2019 novel coronavirus: implications for virus origins and receptor binding. Lancet. 2020;395(10224):565-74.

Rutala WA, Gergen MF, Weber DJ. Room decontamination with UV radiation. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2010;31(10):1025-9.

Boyce JM, Havill NL, Moore BA. Terminal decontamination of patient rooms using an automated mobile UV light unit. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2011;32(8):737-42.

Ryan MO, Haas CN, Gurian PL, Gerba CP, Panzl BM, Rose JB. Application of quantitative microbial risk assessment for selection of microbial reduction targets for hard surface disinfectants. Am J Infect Control. 2014;42(11):1165-72.

Kariwa H, Fujii N, Takashima I. Inactivation of SARS coronavirus by means of povidone-iodine, physical conditions and chemical reagents. Dermatology. 2006;212(Suppl1):119-23.

Mikhail M, Young T. Sterilisation of flexible endoscopes. In: Walker JT, editor. Decontamination in Hospitals and Healthcare. Sawston: Woodhead Publishing. 2014;p.639-50.

Otter JA, Yezli S, Perl TM, Barbut F, French GL. A guide to no-touch automated room disinfection (NTD) systems. In: Walker JT, editor. Decontamination in Hospitals and Healthcare. Sawston: Woodhead Publishing. 2014;p.413-60.

Munoz-Price LS, Birnbach DJ, Lubarsky DA, Arheart KL, Fajardo-Aquino Y, Rosalsky M, et al. Decreasing operating room environmental pathogen contamination through improved cleaning practice. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2012;33(9):897-904.

Armellino D, Goldstein K, Thomas L, Walsh TJ, Petraitis V. Comparative evaluation of operating room terminal cleaning by two methods: Focused multivector ultraviolet (FMUV) versus manual-chemical disinfection. Am J Infect Control. 2020;48(2):147-52.

Andersen BM, Bånrud H, Bøe E, Bjordal O, Drangsholt F. Comparison of UV C light and chemicals for disinfection of surfaces in hospital isolation units. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2006;27(7):729-34.