Hardiness, Social Support, and Stress Among Gestational Diabetic Women
Women suffering from gestational diabetes during pregnancy experience stress. The purposes of this descriptive research study were to investigate hardiness, social support, stress, and their relationships among women with gestational diabetes using the biobehavioral model of stress by Miller, Smith, and Rothstein (1993) as a framework. The participants consisted of 102 pregnant women who had been diagnosed with gestational diabetes type A1 for at least one month and received care from the antenatal clinics of Health Promotion Region 10 Hospital and Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital between October 2014 and March 2015. The research instruments included 1) the Hardiness Scale for Women with Gestational Diabetes, modified from the Hardiness Scale for Women developed by Sujitra Tiansawad, Benjamaporn Nakamadee, Pantawee Chuekao and Susanha Yimyam (2007) and based on the Craft framework (1999), 2) the Social Support of High Risk Pregnant Women Questionnaire from Pannee Chunpradup (1995), which was developed from the House framework (1981), and 3) part 3 of the Suanprung Stress Test-60 (SPST-60) of Suwat Mahatnirunkul, Wanida Pumpaisalchai and Pimmas Tapanya (1997). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Spearman correlation coefficient.
The results of the study are as follows:
The results of the study were as follows:
- The mean score for hardiness was at a high level (x̄ = 116.76, S.D. = 8.47);
- The mean score for social support was at a high level (x̄ = 96.75, S.D. = 14.28);
- Overall stress was at a high level (S.D.=14.55);
- Hardiness had a low negative correlation with stress (r = -.205, p<.05); and Social support had a moderate negative correlation with stress (r = -.350, p<.01).
The results of this study can be used as baseline data for the evaluation of stress with respect to hardiness and social support among women with gestational diabetes.
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