Self-efficacy and Adaptive Performance of Head Nurses in Affiliated Hospitals of Dali University, People's Republic of China


  • Yunhong Zhang Graduate Student of Nursing Science program (International Program), Faculty of Nursing, Chiang Mai University
  • Apiradee Nantsupawat Faculty of Nursing, Chiang Mai University
  • Petsunee Thungjaroenkul Faculty of Nursing, Chiang Mai University


Self-efficacy, Adaptive performance, Head nurse, Affiliated Hospitals of Dali University, People's Republic of China


Self-efficacy and adaptive performance are important components in the healthcare system for reaching positive organizational outcomes. However, little is known about the relationship between self-efficacy and adaptive performance. The purpose of this descriptive correlation study was to examine the self-efficacy and adaptive performance of head nurses, as well as to explore the relationship between self-efficacy and adaptive performance of head nurses in the affiliated hospitals of Dali University, the People’s Republic of China. The participants consisted of 135 head nurses from four affiliated hospitals in Yunnan Province. The instruments included the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) developed by Zhang & Schwarzer (1995) and the Adaptive Performance Scale developed by Charbonnier-Voirin & Roussel (2012). The Adaptive Performance Scale was translated into Chinese by the researcher without modification. The validity of GSES and Adaptive Performance Scale were confirmed. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficients of GSES and Adaptive Performance Scale were .86 and .89. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Pearson product-moment correlation.

          The results of this study revealed that the mean score of self-efficacy of head nurses was 2.81 (SD= 0.49), lower than the international norm value of 2.9. The adaptive performance of head nurses was at a high level (=5.59, SD= 0.56). Self-efficacy of head nurses had a moderate positive correlation with adaptive performance (r= .50, p<.01).

          The results of this study provide basic information and knowledge for hospital administrators to develop hospital policy and management strategies to increase head nurses’ self-efficacy, which will enhance their adaptive performance.


Download data is not yet available.


Andela, M., Truchot, D., & Van der Doef, M. (2016). Job stressors and burnout in hospitals: The mediating role of emotional dissonance. International Journal of Stress Management, 23(3), 298.

Bouwens, J., & Krueger, D. (2014). Embracing Change: The healthcare industry focuses on new growth drivers and leadership requirements. Retrieved from http://www. russell reynolds. com/content/embracing-change healthca.

Charbonnier-Voirin, A., & Roussel, P. (2012). Adaptive performance: A new scale to measure individual performance in organizations. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences/Revue Canadienne des Sciences de l’Administration, 29(3), 280-293.

Charbonnier-Voirin, A., El Akremi, A., & Vandenber, C. (2010). A multilevel model of transformational leadership and adaptive performance and the moderating role of climate for innovation. Group & Organization Management, 35(6), 699-726.

Deng, F. F. (2015). Comparison of nursing education among different countries. Chinese Nursing Research, 2 (4), 96-98.

Du, C., & Wang, Z. (2012). Research on the relationship between personality traits, general self-efficacy and adaptability performance of employees. Soft Science, 26 (4), 101-1059. (in Chinese)

Dorsey, D., Cortina, J., & Luchman, J. (2010). Adaptive and citizenship-related behaviors at work. In J. Farr, & N. Tippins (Eds.), Handbook of employee selection (463–487). New York, NY: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.

Griffin, M., Neal, A., & Parker, S. (2007). A new model of work role performance: Positive behavior in uncertain and interdependent contexts. Academy of management journal, 50(2), 327-347.

Health and Family planning commission of Yunnan PR. (2017). The workload of medical service in Yunnan Province. Retrieved from

Ilgen, D. R., & Pulakos, E. D. (1999). Employee performance in todays organizations. In D. R.

Ilgen & E. D. Pulakos (Eds). The changing nature of work performance: Implications for

staffing, motivation, and development. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2, 165-208.

Israel, G. D. (1992). Determining Sample Size. PEOD6. IFAS extension, University of

Florida. Kirk, R (2007). Statistics: An introduction. New York: Thomson Learning.

Liang, J., & Tan, C. (2016). Investigation and analysis of occupational stress of emergency nurses in pre – hospital. Attend to Practice and Research, 23(12), 83-84. (in Chinese)

Liu, H. H. (2014). A study on the self-efficacy and turnover intention of operating

room nurses in Zhuzhou city (Master’s thesis) Central South University.

Luszczynska, A., & Schwarzer, R. (2005). Social cognitive theory. In M. Conner & P. Norman (Eds.), Predicting health behaviour (2nd ed. rev.,127–169). Buckingham, England: Open University Press.

Luthans, F. (2002). Positive organizational behavior: Developing and managing

psychological strengths. Journal of Management Executive, 16, 57-75.

Marques-Quinteiro, P., Ramos-Villagrasa, P., Passos, A., & Curral, L. (2015). Measuring adaptive performance in individuals and teams. Team Performance Management, 21(7),339-360.

Naami, A., Behzadi, E., Parisa, H., & Charkhabi, M. (2014). A study on the personality aspects of adaptive performance among governmental hospitals nurses: A conceptual model. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 159, 359-364.

National health and family planning commission. (2015).The National Planning Guideline for the Healthcare Service System (2015–2020). Retrieved from


Ning, L., Li, Y., Lu, J., & Lin, L, J. (2013). A study on the relationship between job burnout, role

perception and self-efficacy among 112 head nurses in Hangzhou. Journal of Nursing, 11, 71-73.

Schwarzer, R. (1994). Optimism, vulnerability, and self-beliefs as health-related cognitions: A systematic overview. Psychology and health, 9(3), 161-180.

Schwarzer, R., & Jerusalem, M. (1995). Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale. In J. Weinman, S.

Wright, & M. Johnston (Eds.), Measures in health psychology: A user’s portfolio. Causal

and control beliefs (pp. 35-37). Windsor, UK: NFER-NELSON.

Sibthorpe, B., & Glasgow, N., and Longstaff, D. (2004). Complex adaptive systems: A different way of thinking about Health care systems. The Australian National University.

Retrieved from

Wakim, N. (2014). Occupational stressors, stress perception levels, and coping styles

of medical surgical RNs: A generational perspective. Journal of Nursing Administration, 44(12), 632-639.

Wu, X., Li, X., Wang, Y., & Li, J. (2014). A study on the relationship between time management tendency and self-efficacy of head nurses. Journal of Nursing, 7-10. (in Chinese)

Xenikou, A., & Simosi, M. (2006). Organizational culture and transformational

leadership as predictors of business unit performance. Journal of managerial psychology, 21(6), 566-579.

Yamane, T. (1973). Statistic: An introductory analysis. Tokyo: Harper International.

Zacher, H. (2014). Patient Safety-A Psychological Perspective: Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter.

Zhang, J., Wang, W., Hong, J. F., & Wang, J. X. (2014). Survey and analysis on core

competence of nurse managers. Nursing research, 28(1), 290-292.

Zhang, J. X., & Schwarzer, R. (1995). Measuring optimistic self-beliefs: A Chinese adaptation of

The General self-efficacy Scale. psychologia: An international Journal of Psychology in

the Orient, 38(3), 174–181.






Research Article