Nurses’ Role in Management of Sepsis Following Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines 2021


  • Poramate Insook Faculty of Nursing, Rajamangala University of Technology Thanyaburi
  • Chestharid Borriboon Faculty of Nursing, University of Phayao


Management of sepsis, Surviving sepsis campaign 2021, Nurse’s roles


Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that can lead to organ dysfunction and death. Early appropriate management based on current evidence-based practice is important. This article aims to review the literature on sepsis, the effects of sepsis, sepsis management guidelines, and nurses’ role in management of sepsis following the surviving sepsis campaign guidelines 2021. Nurses are important for taking care of patients with sepsis following the surviving sepsis campaign guidelines 2021 which include screening, sepsis management, blood culture, antibiotics administration, blood lactate, septic shock management, fluid resuscitation, vasopressor administration, and evaluating the effect of treatment following the guidelines, in order to care for and manage patients with sepsis appropriately to reduce sepsis complications and mortality.


Arefian, H., Heublein, S., Scherag, A., Brunkhorst, F. M., Younis, M. Z., Moerer, O., … Hartmann, M. (2017). Hospital-related cost of sepsis: A systematic review. The Journal of Infection, 74(2), 107–117.

Calsavara, A., Nobre, V., Barichello, T., & Teixeira, A. L. (2018). Post-sepsis cognitive impairment and associated risk factors: A systematic review. Australian Critical Care: Official Journal of The Confederation of Australian Critical Care Nurses, 31(4), 242–253.

Carey, M. R., Prescott, H. C., Iwashyna, T. J., Wilson, M. E., Fagerlin, A., & Valley, T. S. (2020). Changes in self-rated health after sepsis in older adults: A retrospective cohort study. Chest, 158(5), 1958–1966.

Cinel, I., Kasapoglu, U. S., Gul, F., & Dellinger, R. P. (2020). The initial resuscitation of septic shock. Journal of Critical Care, 57, 108-117.

Corrêa, T. D., Cavalcanti, A. B., & Assunção, M. S. C. D. (2016). Balanced crystalloids for septic shock resuscitation. Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva, 28, 463-471.

Dietz, B. W., Jones, T. K., Small, D. S., Gaieski, D. F., & Mikkelsen, M. E. (2017). The relationship between index hospitalizations, sepsis, and death or transition to hospice care during 30-day hospital readmissions. Medical Care, 55(4), 362–370.

Evans, L., Rhodes, A., Alhazzani, W., Antonelli, M., Coopersmith, C. M., French, C., … Levy, M. (2021). Surviving sepsis campaign: International guidelines for management of sepsis and septic shock 2021. Critical Care Medicine, 49(11), e1063–e1143.

Ferguson, A., Coates, D. E., Osborn, S., Blackmore, C. C., & Williams, B. (2019). Early, nurse-directed sepsis care. AJN The American Journal of Nursing, 119(1), 52-58.

Fleischmann-Struzek, C., Rose, N., Freytag, A., Spoden, M., Prescott, H. C., Schettler, A., … Hartog, C. S. (2021). Epidemiology and costs of post sepsis morbidity, nursing care dependency, and mortality in Germany, 2013 to 2017. Journal of the American Medical Association, 4(11), e2134290.

Garcia, R. A., Spitzer, E. D., Kranz, B., & Barnes, S. (2018). A national survey of interventions and practices in the prevention of blood culture contamination and associated adverse health care events. American Journal of Infection Control, 46(5), 571-576.

Goulden, R., Hoyle, M. C., Monis, J., Railton, D., Riley, V., Martin, P., … Nsutebu, E. (2018). qSOFA, SIRS and NEWS for predicting in hospital mortality and ICU admission in emergency admissions treated as sepsis. Emergency Medicine Journal, 35(6), 345–349.

Hajj, J., Blaine, N., Salavaci, J., & Jacoby, D. (2018). The centrality of sepsis: A review on incidence, mortality, and cost of care. Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland), 6(3), 90.

Hammond, D. A., Lam, S. W., Rech, M. A., Smith, M. N., Westrick, J., …. Balk, R. A. (2020). Balanced crystalloids versus saline in critically ill adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis. The Annals of pharmacotherapy, 54(1), 5–13.

Jiang, J., Yang, J., Mei, J., Jin, Y., & Lu, Y. (2018). Head-to-head comparison of qSOFA and SIRS criteria in predicting the mortality of infected patients in the emergency department: A meta-analysis. Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine, 26(1), 56.

Kleinpell, R., Blot, S., Boulanger, C., Fulbrook, P., & Blackwood, B. (2019). International critical care nursing considerations and quality indicators for the 2017 surviving sepsis campaign guidelines. Intensive Care Medicine, 45(11), 1663–1666.

Lara, B., Enberg, L., Ortega, M., Leon, P., Kripper, C., Aguilera, P., … Hernandez, G. (2017). Capillary refill time during fluid resuscitation in patients with sepsis-related hyperlactatemia at the emergency department is related to mortality. PloS one, 12(11), e0188548.

Léguillier, T., Jouffroy, R., Boisson, M., Boussaroque, A., Chenevier-Gobeaux, C., Chaabouni, T., ... Beaudeux, J. L. (2018). Lactate POCT in mobile intensive care units for septic patients? A comparison of capillary blood method versus venous blood and plasma-based reference methods. Clinical Biochemistry, 55, 9-14.

Levy, M. M., Evans, L. E., & Rhodes, A. (2018). The surviving sepsis campaign bundle: 2018 update. Critical Care Medicine, 46(6), 997–1000.

Raines, K., Berrios, R. A. S., & Guttendorf, J. (2019). Sepsis education initiative targeting qSOFA screening for non-ICU patients to improve sepsis recognition and time to treatment. Journal of Nursing Care Quality, 34(4), 318-324.

Rhee, C., Jones, T. M., Hamad, Y., Pande, A., Varon, J., O'Brien, C., … Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Prevention Epicenters Program (2019). Prevalence, underlying causes, and preventability of sepsis-associated mortality in US acute care hospitals. Journal of the American Medical Association, 2(2), e187571.

Rhodes, A., Evans, L. E., Alhazzani, W., Levy, M. M., Antonelli, M., Ferrer, R., … Dellinger, R. P. (2017). Surviving sepsis campaign: International guidelines for management of sepsis and septic shock: 2016. Intensive Care Medicine, 43(3), 304–377.

Rudd, K. E., Hantrakun, V., Somayaji, R., Booraphun, S., Boonsri, C., Fitzpatrick, A. L., ... West, T. E. (2019). Early management of sepsis in medical patients in rural Thailand: a single-center prospective observational study. Journal of Intensive Care, 7(1), 1-8.

Rudd, K. E., Johnson, S. C., Agesa, K. M., Shackelford, K. A., Tsoi, D., Kievlan, D. R., … Naghavi, M. (2020). Global, regional, and national sepsis incidence and mortality, 1990-2017: Analysis for the global burden of disease study. Lancet (London, England), 395(10219), 200–211.

Serafim, R., Gomes, J. A., Salluh, J., & Póvoa, P. (2018). A comparison of the quick-SOFA and systemic inflammatory response3 syndrome criteria for the diagnosis of sepsis and prediction of mortality: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Chest, 153(3), 646-655.

Seymour, C. W., Liu, V. X., Iwashyna, T. J., Brunkhorst, F. M., Rea, T. D., Scherag, A., … Angus, D. C. (2016). Assessment of clinical criteria for sepsis: For the third international consensus definitions for sepsis and septic shock (Sepsis-3). Journal of the American Medical Association, 315(8), 762–774.

Singer, M., Deutschman, C. S., Seymour, C. W., Shankar-Hari, M., Annane, D., Bauer, M., … Angus, D. C. (2016). The third international consensus definitions for sepsis and septic shock (Sepsis-3). Journal of the American Medical Association, 315(8), 801–810

Thorén, A., Joelsson-Alm, E., Spångfors, M., Rawshani, A., Kahan, T., Engdahl, J., ... Djärv, T. (2022). The predictive power of the National Early Warning Score (NEWS) 2, as compared to NEWS, among patients assessed by a Rapid response team: A prospective multi-centre trial. Resuscitation Plus, 9, 100191.




How to Cite

Insook, P., & Borriboon, C. (2022). Nurses’ Role in Management of Sepsis Following Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines 2021. Nursing Journal CMU, 49(2), 376–389. Retrieved from



Academic Article