COVID-19 Vaccine Acceptance from the Perspective of People Living in Northern Thailand: A Mixed Methods Research

Authors

  • Yupares Payaprom Boromarajonani College of Nursing, Chiang Mai
  • Hutsaya Tantipong Department of Medicine, Chonburi Regional Hospital
  • Pornpun Manasatchakun Boromarajonani College of Nursing, Chiang Mai
  • Sarinyaporn Chandeekeawchakool Boromarajonani College of Nursing, Chiang Mai
  • Songyos Khamchai Chiang Mai Provincial Public Health Office

Keywords:

vaccine acceptance, mixed method approach, COVID-19 vaccine, HBM

Abstract

This research aimed to determine the acceptance rate of the COVID-19 vaccine and
its associated factors. A mixed method research study was conducted with the quantitative study comprised of 2,200 adults aged 18 or older. Participants were recruited from households in 25 districts in Chiang Mai province, with a multi-stage cluster sampling method. Data were collected using a questionnaire based on the Health Belief Model (HBM). Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with COVID-19 vaccine acceptance rates. For the qualitative portion of the study, a purposive sampling approach was utilized to recruit 40 adults aged 18 or older. Focus group discussions were conducted, and qualitative content analysis was applied to analyze data.
         The research results indicated that the COVID-19 vaccine acceptance rate was 41.1%.
The factors associated with the acceptance of COVID-19 vaccines were sociodemographic characteristics including education level, employment status, influenza vaccination history, having good knowledge about COVID-19, perceived risk of contracting COVID-19, perceived benefits of the vaccine, and receiving cues to action, such as being encouraged by community members or recommendations from healthcare professionals. The focus groups also revealed that participants’ decisions in relation to the acceptance of COVID-19 vaccines were based on several factors including salience of risk, efficacy and safety of the COVID-19 vaccine, Information needs and sources of information, and influence of others.

These findings emphasize the importance of considering and understanding the factors that affect people's vaccination decisions in order to develop effective public health initiatives to increase COVID-19 vaccination uptake.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Alimohamadi Y, Sepandi M. (2019). Considering the design effect in cluster sampling. Journal of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Research, 11(1), 78.

Al-Mohaithef, M, Padhi, B. K. (2020). Determinants of COVID-19 vaccine acceptancein Saudi Arabia: A web-based national survey. Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare, 13, 1657-1663.

Al-Metwali, B. Z., Al-Jumaili, A. A., Al-Alag, Z. A., Sorofman, B. (2021). Exploring the acceptance of COVID-19 vaccine among healthcare workers and general population using health belief model. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice, 27, 1112–1122.

Becker, M. H. (1974). The Health Belief Model and preventive health behavior. New Jersey: Charles B. Slack

Graneheim, U. H., & Lundman, B. Qualitative content analysis in nursing research: Concepts,procedures and measures to achieve trustworthiness. (2004). Nurse Education Today, 24,105–112.

Kelly, B. J., Southwell, B. G., McCormack, L. A., Bann, C. M., MacDonald, P. D. M., Frasier, A. M., …. Squiers, L. B. (2021). Predictors of willingness to get a COVID-19 vaccine in the U.S. BMC Infectious Disease, 21, 338.

Kitro, A., Sirikul, W., Piankusol, C., Rirermsoonthorn, P., Seesen, M., Wangsan, K., ... Sapbamrer, R. (2021). Acceptance, attitude, and factors affecting the intention to accept COVID-19 vaccine among Thai people and expatriates living in Thailand. Vaccine, 39, 7554–7561.

Kourlaba, G., Kourkouni, E.,Maistreli, S., Tsopela, C.G., Molocha, N. M., Triantafyllou. C….Zaoutis, T. E. (2021). Willingness of Greek general population to get a COVID-19 vaccine. Global Health Research and Policy, 6, 3.

Lazarus, J. V., Ratzan, S. C., Palayew, A., Gostin, L.O., Larson, H. J. Rabin, K., ... El-Mohandes, A. A. (2021). Global survey of potential acceptance of a COVID-19 vaccine. Nature Medicine, 27, 225–228.

Mahmud, S., Mohsin, M., Khan, I. A, Mian, A. U., Zaman, M. A. (2021). Knowledge, beliefs, attitudes and perceived risk about COVID-19 vaccine and determinants of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance in Bangladesh. PLoS One, 16(9): e0257096.

Ritchie, H., Beltekian, D. (2021). Mortality risk of COVID-19. Retrieved from https://ourworldindata.org/mortality-risk-covid.

Sherman, S. M., Smith, L. E., Sim, J., Amlôt, R., Cutts, M., Dasch, H., ... Sevdalis, N. (2021).Acceptability COVID-19 vaccination intention in the UK: Results from the COVID-19 vaccination study (CoVAccS), a nationally representative cross-sectional survey. Human Vaccines & immunotherapeutics, 17(6), 1612-1621.

Shmueli, L. (2021). Predicting intention to receive COVID-19 vaccine among the general population using the health belief model and the theory of planned behavior model, BMC Public Health, 21, 804.

Singh, C., Naik, B. N., Pandey, S., Biswas, B., Pati, B. K., Verma, M., … Singh, P. K. (2021). Effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccine in preventing infection and disease severity: a case-control study from an Eastern State of India. Epidemiology and Infection, 149, e224,1-9.

Solís Arce, J. S., Warren, S. S, Meriggi , N. F., Scacco, A., McMurry , N., Voors, M., … Omer, S. B. (2021). COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and hesitancy in low- and middle-incomecountries. Nature Medicine, 27, 1385–1394.

Tran, V. D., Pak, T. V., Gribkova, E. I., Galkina, G. A., Loskutova, E. E., Dorofeeva, V. V., ... Pham, S. B. (2021). Determinants of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance in a high infection-rate country: A cross-sectional study in Russia. Pharmacy Practice, 19(1), 2276.

Wayne, W. D. (1995). Biostatistics: A foundation of analysis in the health science (6th ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Wilder-Smith, A. (2021). What is the vaccine effect on reducing transmission in the context of the SARS-CoV-2 delta variant? Lancet Infectious Disease., 22(2), 152-153.

Wong, L. P, Alias H, Wong P. F., Lee, H. Y, AbuBakar, S. (2020). The use of the health belief model to assess predictors of intent to receive the COVID-19 vaccine and willingness to pay. Human vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, 16, 2204– 2214.

Wong, M. C. S., Wong, E. L.Y., Huang, J., Cheung, A. W. L, Law, K., Chong, M. K. C., ...Chan, P. K. S. (2021). Acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine based on the health belief model: A population-based survey in Hong Kong. Vaccine, 39, 1148–1156.

World Health Organization. (2022a). WHO coronavirus (COVID-19) dashboard. Retrieved from https://covid19.who.int/ (accessed on 5 2022).

World Health Organization. (2022b). Thailand-WHO coronavirus (COVID-19) dashboard.Retrieved from https://covid19.who.int/region/searo/country/th

World Health Organization. (2022c). Tracking SARS-CoV-2 variants. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/activities/tracking-SARS-CoV-2-variants

World Health Organization (2022d). COVID-19 advice for the public: Getting vaccinated. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/covid-19-vaccines/advice

World Health Organization. (2022e). Strategy to achieve global Covid-19 vaccination by mid-2022. Retrieved from https://cdn.who.int/media/docs/default-ource/immunization/covid-19/strategy-to-achieve-global-covid-19-vaccination-by-mid-2022.pdf.

Downloads

Published

2022-06-22

Issue

Section

Research Article