Main Article Content
Objective: To evaluate the effect of cementation technique on the fracture resistance of glass-ceramic materials.
Methods: Sixty third molar teeth were collected (n=15). The tooth surface was prepared by cutting on occlusal table to obtain 5 mm x 5 mm of dentin surface, and the tooth was fixed in acrylic resin cylinder. Sixty (n=15) 4 mm x 4 mm x 2 mm zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate (Celta Duo, DeguDent) plates were made. The ceramic bonding surface was etched with 5% hydrofluoric acid (HF; IPS Ceramic Etching Gel 5%, Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein) and coated with single bond universal adhesive (3M ESPE). For group 1, 2 and 3, the prepared ceramics were cemented with self-adhesive resin cement (RelyXTM Unicem, 3M ESPE) on tooth surfaces using three techniques, untreated, self-etch bonding, and etch and rinse bonding techniques, respectively. For group 4 (Control group), unprepared ceramics were cemented with zinc phosphate cement (S.S. White group) on untreated tooth surfaces. The specimens were tested under compression with a 5 mm steel ball using a universal testing machine. The maximum failure load was recorded in newton. Fracture surfaces were examined under a scanning electron microscope to determine the origin and the fracture pattern. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Tukey’s HSD test.
Result: The mean fracture load of group 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 1698 ± 126 N, 1760 ± 231 N, 1842 ± 172 N and 1018 ± 151 N, respectively. Fracture load of group 4 was significantly lower than that of the other groups (p < 0.01). However, there was no significant difference between other groups.
Conclusion: The use of self-adhesive resin cement showed higher fracture load than zinc phosphate cement. The cementation techniques with self-adhesive resin cement exhibited negligible effect to the fracture resistance.
Raptis NV, Michalakis KX, Hirayama H. Optical behavior of current ceramic systems. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent. 2006; 26: 31-41.
Elsaka SE, Elnaghy AM. Mechanical properties of zirconia reinforced lithium silicate glass-ceramic. Dent Mater. 2016; 32: 908-14.
Fasbinder DJ, Dennison JB, Heys D, Neiva G. A clinical evaluation of chairside lithium disilicate CAD/CAM crowns: a two-year report. J Am Dent Assoc. 2010; 141: 10s-4s.
Altamimi AM, Tripodakis AP, Eliades G, Hirayama H. Comparison of fracture resistance and fracture characterization of bilayered zirconia/fluorapatite and monolithic lithium disilicate all ceramic crowns. Int J Esthet Dent. 2014; 9: 98-110.
Gehrt M, Wolfart S, Rafai N, Reich S, Edelhoff D. Clinical results of lithium-disilicate crowns after up to 9 years of service. Clin Oral Investig. 2013; 17: 275-84.
Pieger S, Salman A, Bidra AS. Clinical outcomes of lithium disilicate single crowns and partial fixed dental prostheses: a systematic review. J Prosthet Dent. 2014; 112: 22-30.
Dhima M, Carr AB, Salinas TJ, Lohse C, Berglund L, Nan KA. Evaluation of fracture resistance in aqueous environment under dynamic loading of lithium disilicate restorative systems for posterior applications. Part 2. J Prosthodont. 2014; 23: 353-7.
Fabbri G, Zarone F, Dellificorelli G, Cannistraro G, De Lorenzi M, Mosca A, et al. Clinical evaluation of 860 anterior and posterior lithium disilicate restorations: retrospective study with a mean follow-up of 3 years and a maximum observational period of 6 years. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent. 2014; 34: 165-77.
Oilo M, Gjerdet NR. Fractographic analyses of all-ceramic crowns: a study of 27 clinically fractured crowns. Dent Mater. 2013; 29: e78-84.
Della Bona A, Mecholsky JJ, Jr., Anusavice KJ. Fracture behavior of lithia disilicate- and leucite-based ceramics. Dent Mater. 2004; 20: 956-62.
Kelly JR, Giordano R, Pober R, Cima MJ. Fracture surface analysis of dental ceramics: clinically failed restorations. Int J Prosthodont. 1990; 3: 430-40.
Rekow ED, Silva NR, Coelho PG, Zhang Y, Guess P, Thompson VP. Performance of dental ceramics: challenges for improvements. J Dent Res. 2011; 90: 937-52.
Guazzato M, Albakry M, Ringer SP, Swain MV. Strength, fracture toughness and microstructure of a selection of all-ceramic materials. Part I. Pressable and alumina glass-infiltrated ceramics. Dent Mater. 2004; 20: 441-8.
Guazzato M, Albakry M, Ringer SP, Swain MV. Strength, fracture toughness and microstructure of a selection of all-ceramic materials. Part II. Zirconia-based dental ceramics. Dent Mater. 2004; 20: 449-56.
Lima JM, Souza AC, Anami LC, Bottino MA, Melo RM, Souza RO. Effects of thickness, processing technique, and cooling rate protocol on the flexural strength of a bilayer ceramic system. Dent Mater. 2013; 29: 1063-72.
Peumans M, Van Meerbeek B, Lambrechts P, Vanherle G. Porcelain veneers: a review of the literature. J Dent. 2000; 28: 163-77.
Sasse M, Krummel A, Klosa K, Kern M. Influence of restoration thickness and dental bonding surface on the fracture resistance of full-coverage occlusal veneers made from lithium disilicate ceramic. Dent Mater. 2015; 31: 907-15.
Scherrer SS, de Rijk WG, Belser UC, Meyer JM. Effect of cement film thickness on the fracture resistance of a machinable glass-ceramic. Dent Mater. 1994; 10: 172-7.
Preis V, Behr M, Hahnel S, Rosentritt M. Influence of cementation on in vitro performance, marginal adaptation and fracture resistance of CAD/CAM-fabricated ZLS molar crowns. Dent Mater. 2015; 31: 1363-9.
Yazigi C, Kern M, Chaar MS. Influence of various bonding techniques on the fracture strength of thin CAD/CAM-fabricated occlusal glass-ceramic veneers. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater. 2017; 75: 504-11.
Piemjai M, Arksornnukit M. Compressive fracture resistance of porcelain laminates bonded to enamel or dentin with four adhesive systems. J Prosthodont. 2007; 16: 457-64.
Radovic I, Monticelli F, Goracci C, Vulicevic ZR, Ferrari M. Self-adhesive resin cements: a literature review. J Adhes Dent. 2008; 10: 251-8.
Pashley DH, Tay FR, Breschi L, Tjaderhane L, Carvalho RM, Carrilho M, et al. State of the art etch-and-rinse adhesives. Dent Mater. 2011; 27: 1-16.
Van Meerbeek B, Yoshihara K, Yoshida Y, Mine A, De Munck J, Van Landuyt KL. State of the art of self-etch adhesives. Dent Mater. 2011; 27: 17-28.
Masarwa N, Mohamed A, Abou-Rabii I, Abu Zaghlan R, Steier L. Longevity of Self-etch Dentin Bonding Adhesives Compared to Etch-and-rinse Dentin Bonding Adhesives: A Systematic Review. J Evid Based Dent Pract. 2016; 16: 96-106.
Takamizawa T, Barkmeier WW, Tsujimoto A, Berry TP, Watanabe H, Erickson RL, et al. Influence of different etching modes on bond strength and fatigue strength to dentin using universal adhesive systems. Dent Mater. 2016; 32: e9-21.
Brunzel S, Yang B, Wolfart S, Kern M. Tensile bond strength of a so-called self-adhesive luting resin cement to dentin. J Adhes Dent. 2010; 12: 143-50.
Haller B, Hofmann N, Klaiber B, Bloching U. Effect of storage media on microleakage of five dentin bonding agents. Dent Mater. 1993; 9: 191-7.
International Organization for Standardization. ISO/TS 11405:2015. Dentistry — Testing of adhesion to tooth structure. Switzerland: ISO; 2015.
Lise DP, Perdigao J, Van Ende A, Zidan O, Lopes GC. Microshear Bond Strength of Resin Cements to Lithium Disilicate Substrates as a Function of Surface Preparation. Oper Dent. 2015; 40: 524-32.
Aboushelib MN, Sleem D. Microtensile bond strength of lithium disilicate ceramics to resin adhesives. J Adhes Dent. 2014; 16: 547-52.
Bindl A, Luthy H, Mormann WH. Strength and fracture pattern of monolithic CAD/CAM-generated posterior crowns. Dent Mater. 2006; 22: 29-36.
Fleming GJ, Maguire FR, Bhamra G, Burke FM, Marquis PM. The strengthening mechanism of resin cements on porcelain surfaces. J Dent Res. 2006; 85: 272-6.
Rojpaibool T, Leevailoj C. Fracture Resistance of Lithium Disilicate Ceramics Bonded to Enamel or Dentin Using Different Resin Cement Types and Film Thicknesses. J Prosthodont. 2017; 26: 141-9.
Zhang Y, Kim JW, Bhowmick S, Thompson VP, Rekow ED. Competition of fracture mechanisms in monolithic dental ceramics: flat model systems. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2009; 88: 402-11.
Lawn BR, Deng Y, Miranda P, Pajares A, Chai H, Kim DK. Overview: Damage in brittle layer structures from concentrated loads. J Mater Res. 2002; 17: 3019-36.