Fracture mechanics approach to determine bonding quality of two ceramics

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Vachiraporn Umpornsittikul
Chuchai Anunmana
Potchaman Sinavarat
Pornkiat Churnjitapirom


Objective: To evaluate bonding quality of bilayered and monolithic dental ceramics using chevron-notch specimens.

Materials and methods: The monolithic blocks of ceramic core materials (IPSe.max®Press) and ceramic veneering material (IPSe.max®Ceram) were fabricated. In addition, the blocks of bilayered ceramic (IPS e.max®Press/ IPSe.max®Ceram) was also fabricated. The triangular notch shape were created at the middle of the prepared bars and at the interface between two ceramics (3x4x16 mm) by using the specific devices and loaded in tension until failure. Optical microscope and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) were used to determine the crack propagation and ensure the mode of failure. Then, the bonding quality of the bilayered and monolithic specimens were analyzed.

Results: All of the specimen failures were found at the interface. The optical microscope revealed that the crack was initiated at the tip of the triangular notch and the failure occurred along the interface. Accordingly, the interfacial failure pattern was classified.

Conclusions: The test reveals the different approach to evaluate the bonding effectiveness of the ceramics. Specimen size and cutting angle of the triangular notch can be control. The sample can be readily prepared. Therefore, this test can be used as a valid alternative to analysed the bonding quality of the ceramics because the approach ensured the interfacial failure.



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Umpornsittikul V, Anunmana C, Sinavarat P, Churnjitapirom P. Fracture mechanics approach to determine bonding quality of two ceramics. M Dent J [Internet]. 2020 Oct. 21 [cited 2023 Dec. 8];37(2):193-200. Available from:
Original articles


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