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Objectives: The aims of this study were to investigate the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) morphology and to compare the dimensions and ratios between sides and males and females with a skeletal Class III openbite.
Materials and Methods: Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) images of 36 TMJs (9 adult males, aged 20–37 years, mean age 23.44±5.41 years and 9 females, aged 22–42 years, mean age 28.78±6.05 years) in Thai patients with a skeletal Class III openbite were analyzed using multiplanar reconstruction images. Measurements were performed comprising the mesiodistal and the anteroposterior condylar width, the condylar height and axis, and the glenoid fossa depth. The differences in dimensions between the left and the right TMJs were analyzed by the Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test and paired t-test. The differences in dimensions and ratios between sexes were analyzed using the Independent t-test and Mann-Whitney U test.
Results: The anteroposterior condylar width and the condylar axis were significantly higher on the left side than on the right side (p=0.047 and p=0.006, respectively). The average anteroposterior condylar width was slightly higher in males than females (7.99±1.48 mm in males, 7.26±0.58 mm in females, %difference = 9.57%, p>0.05). Moreover, the condylar anteroposterior width to condylar height ratio was higher in males than females (p=0.043).
Conclusions: The left and the right TMJs were significantly different in their anteroposterior condylar width and the condylar axis. Male Thai skeletal Class III openbite patients demonstrated a significantly higher anteroposterior condylar width to condylar height ratio compared with females.
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