Effects of cyclic acid challenge on the surface roughness of various flowable resin composites

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Nattawit Niyomsujarit
Apakorn Worahan
Munin Chaichalothorn


Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of cyclic acid challenge on the surface roughness (Ra) of various flowable resin composites.

Materials and Methods: For this study, G-ænial® Universal Injectable, Beautifil Injectable X, Filtek™ Z350XT Flowable Restorative, and Filtek™ Z350XT Universal Restorative resin composites (Shade A2) were used. Twenty disc-shaped specimens were prepared per group and randomly divided into - control group and cyclic acid treated group. After specimen preparation, the surface roughness of the control group was measured with a contact profilometer. For the acid treated group, the specimens were immersed in 0.5% citric acid (pH=2.3) for 1 minute then in distilled water for 1 minute with a 10-second media-to-media transfer time. This cycle was repeated for 1,095 cycles to simulate 1 year of clinical acid exposoure. Following which, the surface roughness of the specimens were measured. The surface of the composite resins were also observed using SEM.

Results: For the control groups, there was no significant difference in Ra value among the various control resin composites (p=0.179), except Beautifil Injectable X. The highest Ra value was observed with Beautifil Injectable X (0.0448µm). After the cyclic acid challenge, only Beautifil Injectable X (0.0926µm) presented a statistically significant difference in Ra value when compared to the control. No significant differences in Ra values were observed before and after the cyclic acid challenge with other resin composites. All specimens showed a relatively smooth surface topography with the control and acid treated conditions, except Beautifil Injectable X which presented a comparatively rougher surface.

Conclusion: Surface roughness of some flowable resin composites was impacted by cyclic acid challenge, especially Beautifil Injectable X.


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Niyomsujarit N, Worahan A, Chaichalothorn M. Effects of cyclic acid challenge on the surface roughness of various flowable resin composites. M Dent J [Internet]. 2021 Nov. 16 [cited 2023 Dec. 6];41(3):187-96. Available from: https://he02.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/mdentjournal/article/view/250896
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