Antimicrobial activity of neem toothpaste against caries-associated microorganisms

Main Article Content

Ratchaporn Srichan
Boonyanit Thaweboon
Sroisiri Thaweboon
Supaporn Mala


Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of neem toothpaste against various oral microorganisms.

Materials and Methods: Toothpaste containing chloroform extract of neem leaf was prepared by TISTR, Ministry of Science and Technology, Thailand. Two commercial herbal toothpastes were selected for assessment of their antimicrobial activities compared to neem toothpaste. The toothpaste solution was prepared by adding 0.66 g of toothpaste to 1 mL of sterile deionizing water and mixed thoroughly. The suspensions of Streptococcus mutans KPSK 2, Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393, and Candida albicans ATCC 10231 were prepared and added to toothpaste solutions. Subsequent to 50 sec, the final solutions were brought to D/E neutralizing broth and cultured on Brain Heart Infusion agar, Rogosa agar and Sabouraud dextrose agar for the quantitation of S. mutans, L. casei and C. albicans, respectively at 37 °C for 24-48 h. A control was performed using sterile distilled water. The number of colonies was counted after incubation and expressed as colony forming unit (CFU)/ml. A statistical analysis was done by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests.

Results: The result showed that all three herbal toothpastes had a significant suppressive effect against tested microorganisms compared with a control. Neem toothpaste was the most active against L. casei and C. albicans whereas other commercial toothpaste, tea tree oil toothpaste, was the most active against S. mutans and L. casei.

Conclusion: Information from the present study is scientific evidence to demonstrate that neem toothpaste could be selected as natural antimicrobial toothpaste for the prevention of caries-associated microorganisms. With appropriate tooth brushing, it is a simple way to gain good oral and dental health.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Srichan R, Thaweboon B, Thaweboon S, Mala S. Antimicrobial activity of neem toothpaste against caries-associated microorganisms . M Dent J [Internet]. 2021 Nov. 16 [cited 2023 Dec. 2];41(3):213-8. Available from:
Original articles


Petersen PE, Baehni PC. Periodontal health and global public health. Periodontol 2000; 60: 7-14.

Marsh PD. Microbiologic aspects of dental plaque and dental caries. Dent Clin North Am 1999; 43: 599-614.

Conrads G, de Soet JJ, Song L, Henne K, Sztajer H, Wagner-Döbler I, et al. Comparing the cariogenic species Streptococcus sobrinus and S. mutans on whole genome level. J Oral Microbiol 2014; 6: 26189.

Hamada S and Slade HD. Biology, immunology, and cariogenicity of Streptococcus mutans. Microbiol Rev 1980; 44: 331-84.

Loesche WJ. Role of Streptococcus mutans in human dental decay. Microbiol Rev 1986; 50: 353-80.

Badet C and Thebaud NB. Ecology of lactobacilli in the oral cavity: a review of literature. Open Microbiol J 2008; 2: 38-48.

Raja M, Hannan A, Ali K. Association of oral candidal carriage with dental caries in children. Caries Res 2010; 44: 272-76.

Raitio M, Pienihäkkinen K, Scheinin A. Assessment of single risk indicators in relation to caries increment in adolescents. Acta Odontol Scand 1996; 54: 113-17.

Lozano Moraga CP, Rodríguez Martínez GA, Lefimil Puente CA, Morales Bozo IC, Urzúa Orellana BR. Prevalence of Candida albicans and carriage of Candida non-albicans in the saliva of preschool children, according to their caries status. Acta Odontol Scand 2017; 75: 30-5.

De-la-Torre J, Marichalar-Mendia X, Varona-Barquin A, Marcos-Arias C, Eraso E, Aguirre-Urizar JM, et al. Caries and Candida colonisation in adult patients in Basque Country (Spain). Mycoses 2016; 59: 234-40.

Gupta SC, Prasad S, Tyagi AK, Kunnumakkara AB, Aggarwal BB. Neem (Azadirachta indica): An indian traditional panacea with modern molecular basis. Phytomedicine 2017; 34: 14-20.

Anushree B, Fawaz MA, Narahari R, Shahela T, Syed A. Comparison of Antimicrobial Efficacy of Triclosan- Containing, Herbal and Homeopathy Toothpastes- An Invitro Study. J Clin Diagn Res 2015; 9: 5-8.

Polaquini SR, Svidzinski TI, Kemmelmeier C, Gasparetto A. Effect of aqueous extract from Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) on hydrophobicity, biofilm formation and adhesion in composite resin by Candida albicans. Arch Oral Biol 2006; 51: 482-90.

Packia Lekshmi NCJ, Sowmia N, Viveka S, Raja Brindha J, Jeeva S. The inhibiting effect of Azadirachta indica against dental pathogens. Asian J Plant Sci Res 2012; 2: 6-10.

Chatterjee A, Saluja M, Singh N, Kandwal A. To evaluate the antigingivitis and antipalque effect of an Azadirachta indica (neem) mouthrinse on plaque induced gingivitis: A double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. J Indian Soc Periodontol 2011; 15: 398-401.

Duke SA, Forward GC. The conditions occurring in vivo when brushing with toothpastes. Br Dent J 1982; 152: 52-4.

Willyard C. The drug-resistant bacteria that pose the greatest health threats. Nature 2017; 543: 15.

Pallardy M, Bechara R. Chemical or Drug Hypersensitivity: Is the Immune System Clearing the Danger? Toxicol Sci 2017; 158: 14-22.

Trubiano JA, Cairns KA, Evans JA, Ding A, Nguyen T, Dooley MJ, et al. The prevalence and impact of antimicrobial allergies and adverse drug reactions at an Australian tertiary centre. BMC Infect Dis 2015; 15: 572.

Xu DP, Li Y, Meng X, Zhou T, Zhou Y, Zheng J, et al. Natural Antioxidants in Foods and Medicinal Plants: Extraction, Assessment and Resources. Int J Mol Sci 2017; 18: 96.

Panossian A, Seo EJ, Efferth T. Effects of anti-inflammatory and adaptogenic herbal extracts on gene expression of eicosanoids signaling pathways in isolated brain cells. Phytomedicine 2019; 60: 152881.

World Health Organization‎. WHO global report on traditional and complementary medicine 2019. Available from online 17 July 2021.

Chava VR, Manjunath SM, Rajanikanth AV, Sridevi N. The efficacy of neem extract on four microorganisms responsible for causing dental caries viz Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus sanguis: an in vitro study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2012; 13: 769-72.

Sorna kumara H, Rajasekar T, Anandhi A, Shahanas begum H. A Comparative study of invitro antibacterial activity of neem and miswak extracts against isolated cariogens from dental caries patients. J Chem Pharm Res 2011; 3: 638-45.

Krishnan Y and Wong NK. Cytotoxicity and antimicrobial properties of neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extracts. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2015; 7: 179-82.

Biswas K, Chattopadhyay I, Baberjee RK, Bandyopadhyay U. Biological activities and medicinal properties of neem (Azadirachta indica). Cur Sci 2002; 82:1336-45.

Yerima MB, Jodi SM, Oyinbo K, Maishanu HM, Farouq AA, Junaidu AU, et al. Effect of neem extracts (Azadirachta indica) on bacteria isolated from adult mouth. N J B A S 2012; 20: 64-7.

Ghonmode WN, Balsaraf OD, Tambe VH, Saujanya KP, Patil AK, Kakde DD. Comparison of the antibacterial efficiency of neem leaf extracts, grape seed extracts and 3% sodium hypochlorite against E. feacalis - An in vitro study. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5: 61-6.

Badam L, Joshi SP, Bedekar SS. 'In vitro' antiviral activity of neem (Azadirachta indica. A. Juss) leaf extract against group B coxsackieviruses. J Commun Dis 1999; 31: 79-90.

Alzohairy MA. Therapeutics Role of Azadirachta indica (Neem) and Their Active Constituents in Diseases Prevention and Treatment. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2016; 2016: 7382506.

Govindachari TR, Suresh G, Gopalakrishnan G, Banumathy B, S Masilamani. Identification of antifungal compounds from the seed oil ofAzadirachta Indica. Fitoterapia 1998; 26: 109-16.

Singh N and Sastry MS. Antimicrobial activity of Neem oil. Indian J Pharm 1997; 13: 102-6.

Kher A and Chaurasia SC. Anti-fungal activity of essential oils of three medicinal plants. Indian Drugs 1997; 15: 41-2.

Prabhakar J, Senthilkumar M, Priya MS, Mahalakshmi K, Sehgal PK, Sukumaran VG. Evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy of herbal alternatives (Triphala and green tea polyphenols), MTAD, and 5% sodium hypochlorite against Enterococcus faecalis biofilm formed on tooth substrate: an in vitro study. J Endod 2010; 36: 83-6.

Raghavendra SS and Balsaraf KD. Antifungal efficacy of Azadirachta indica (neem) - An in vitro study. Braz J Oral Sci 2014; 13: 242-5.