Cytotoxic effect of gutta percha solvents on human periodontal ligament fibroblasts

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Nachanok Kespichayawattana
Jeeraphat Jantarat
Puey Ounjai
Patompon Wongtrakoongate


Objective: The aims of this study were to evaluate cytotoxic effects of gutta percha solvents: industrial solvent (xylene), solvent containing d-limonene (GP-solvent), and solvent composed of essential oils and surfactants (GuttaClear) at various concentrations and two exposure times on cell viability of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPDLFs).

Materials and Methods: The cytotoxicity of xylene, GP-solvent, and GuttaClear in different dilutions as 1:200, 1:400, 1:800,1:1600, 1:3200, 1:6400, 1:12800, and 1:25600 dilutions of each solvent, to human periodontal ligament fibroblasts were measured by MTT assay. As the tested solvent could not be totally miscible in DMEM, thus 10% dimethyl sulfoxide was used as a solubilizer to improve the solubility of the substances, and ultrasonic activation was used to facilitate the contact of solvents. The mean percentages of cell viability after 30 minutes and 24 hours exposed to various dilutions of solvents were evaluated and compared the difference of cell viability among experimental groups.

Results: The cytotoxicity of each solvent was relatively dose dependent. HPDLF cells showed the viability above 80% when exposed to 1:12800 (0.008%) and 1:25600 (0.004%) concentrations of all solvents in both 30 minutes and 24 hours exposure times. The solvents became toxic to HPDLFs at the different concentrations over 1:6400 (0.016%), 1:3200 (0.031%) and 1:800 (0.001%) for GuttaClear, GP-solvent, and xylene, respectively, regardless of the exposure times.

Conclusion: All tested gutta percha solvents showed cytotoxicity to HPDLFs in a dose-dependent manner, which arranged in that descending orders: GuttaClear, GP-solvent, and xylene. At high concentrations, all of the solvents showed similar severe toxic effects.


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Kespichayawattana N, Jantarat J, Ounjai P, Wongtrakoongate P. Cytotoxic effect of gutta percha solvents on human periodontal ligament fibroblasts. M Dent J [Internet]. 2022 Jun. 18 [cited 2023 Dec. 6];42(2):137-44. Available from:
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