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Objective: To investigate the inhibition activity of mineral trioxide aggregate (ProRoot®MTA) mixed with Thai propolis extract on the expression of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in IL-1β-stimulated human dental pulp cells (HDPCs), compared to calcium hydroxide (Dycal®), a commonly used dental pulp capping material.
Materials and Methods: HDPCs cultured from three freshly extracted intact third molars were incubated with 10 ng/ml of IL-1β to induce MMP-2 activity. Concentrations of Thai propolis extract (0.25-1.50 mg/ml) were evaluated with PrestoBlue cytotoxic assay. ProRoot®MTA mixed with distilled water, ProRoot®MTA mixed with non-toxic Thai propolis extract, non-toxic Thai propolis extract, and DyCal® were used to treat IL-1β-stimulated HDPCs in vitro. After 24 h of incubation, culture supernatants were collected and evaluated for MMP-2 expression using gelatin zymography.
Results: Thai propolis extract 0.25, 0.50, and 0.75 mg/ml were not toxic to inflamed pulp cells at 24, 48, and 72 h. MMP-2 expression was upregulated in IL-1β–challenged HDPCs. Pro-form of MMP-2 was significantly reduced when IL-1β–stimulated HDPCs were incubated with 0.75 mg/ml Thai propolis extract and Dycal®, lower than MTA mixed with propolis and untreated control. In addition, Thai propolis extract significantly decreased the levels of active MMP-2 than Dycal®. However, the MMP-2 levels were not statistically different among MTA mixed with distilled water and MTA mixed with the propolis extract.
Conclusion: Thai propolis extract reduced an active form of MMP-2, greater than Dycal®. Although Thai propolis extract and Dycal® provide better MMP-2 reduction than MTA groups, Thai propolis extract mixed with MTA showed an insignificant effect on MMP-2 reduction in IL-1β – stimulated HDPCs.
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