Main Article Content
Objective: To evaluate the effect of mouthwash containing anthocyanin extract for controlling dental plaque formation and gingivitis in orthodontic patients.
Materials and Methods: Patients treated with orthodontic fixed appliance were assigned to use anthocyanin mouthwash (n=7) and sterile water (n=7). Initially, all of the participants received a prophylaxis and instructions on how to brush and floss. Measurements were recorded for Plaque indices (PI) and Gingival indices (GI) before and after intervention. Mean PI and GI scores were compared statistically between the groups and within groups using independent t-test and paired t-test. The significance level was set at p<0.05.
Results: The PI and GI scores after receiving the intervention in the anthocyanin mouthwash group were significantly lower compared to the control group (p<0.05). Within the group, PI and GI scores for the anthocyanin mouthwash group significantly reduced (p<0.05) after using mouthwash.
Conclusion: This study shows that the use of anthocyanin mouthwash can reduce the amount of plaque and gingivitis in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Boke F, Gazioglu C, Akkaya S, Akkaya M. Relationship between orthodontic treatment and gingival health: A retrospective study. Eur J Dent. 2014 Jul;8(3):373-380. doi: 10.4103/1305-7456.137651.
Ren Y, Jongsma MA, Mei L, van der Mei HC, Busscher HJ. Orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances and biofilm formation--a potential public health threat? Clin Oral Investig. 2014 Sep;18(7):1711-1718. doi: 10.1007/s00784-014-1240-3.
Tufekci E, Casagrande ZA, Lindauer SJ, Fowler CE, Williams KT. Effectiveness of an essential oil mouthrinse in improving oral health in orthodontic patients. Angle Orthod. 2008 Mar;78(2):294-298. doi: 10.2319/040607-174.1.
Van der Weijden FA, Van der Sluijs E, Ciancio SG, Slot DE. Can chemical mouthwash agents achieve plaque/gingivitis control? Dent Clin North Am. 2015 Oct;59(4):799-829. doi: 10.1016/j.cden.2015.06.002.
Serrano J, Escribano M, Roldán S, Martín C, Herrera D. Efficacy of adjunctive anti-plaque chemical agents in managing gingivitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Periodontol. 2015 Apr;42(Suppl 16):S106-S138. doi: 10.1111/jcpe.12331.
Haas AN, Pannuti CM, Andrade AK, Escobar EC, Almeida ER, Costa FO, et al. Mouthwashes for the control of supragingival biofilm and gingivitis in orthodontic patients: evidence-based recommendations for clinicians. Braz Oral Res. 2014 Jul;28(spe):1-8. doi: 10.1590/1807-3107bor-2014.vol28.0021.
He J, Giusti MM. Anthocyanins: natural colorants with health-promoting properties. Annu Rev Food Sci Technol. 2010 Jan;1:163-187. doi: 10.1146/annurev.food.080708.100754.
Paipongna T, Sugsompian K, Kongkraphan P, Suramas H, Limphirat W, Priprem A, et al. Anti-apoptotic effect of Anthocyanins complex on human gingival epithelial cells (HGEPp.05). Khon Kaen Dent J. 2014;17 (1):23-32.
Zagnat M, Spinei A, Bordeniuc G, editors. The efficiency of anthocyanins extract for use in preventing dental caries in experimental animals. 2017 E-Health and Bioengineering Conference (EHB); 2017 June 22-24; Grigore T. Popa University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Sinaia, Romania: The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers ;2017.
Tancharoen S, Shakya P, Narkpinit S, Dararat P, Kikuchi K. Anthocyanins extracted from Oryza sativa L. prevent fluorouracil-induced nuclear factor-κB activation in oral mucositis: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies. Int J Mol Sci. 2018 Sep;19(10):2981. doi: 10.3390/ijms19102981.
Leenutaphong P, Tancharoen S, Kikuchi K, Nararatwanchai T, Phruksaniyom C, Chaichalotornkul S. Downregulation of tumor promotor genes in Oryza Sativa Linn.-induced antiproliferative activity of human squamous carcinoma cells. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2023 Jul;24(7):2431-2438. doi: 10.31557/apjcp.2023.24.7.2431.
Gonçalves AC, Nunes AR, Falcão A, Alves G, Silva LR. Dietary Effects of Anthocyanins in Human Health: A Comprehensive Review. Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2021 Jul;14(7):690. doi: 10.3390/ph14070690.
Hooper L, Kroon PA, Rimm EB, Cohn JS, Harvey I, Le Cornu KA, et al. Flavonoids, flavonoid-rich foods, and cardiovascular risk: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Jul;88(1):38-50. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/88.1.38.
Marsh PD, Bradshaw DJ. Dental plaque as a biofilm. J Ind Microbiol. 1995 Sep;15(3):169-175. doi: 10.1007/bf01569822.
Al-Anezi SA, Harradine NW. Quantifying plaque during orthodontic treatment. Angle Orthod. 2012 Jul;82(4):748-753. doi: 10.2319/050111-312.1.
Löe H. The gingival index, the plaque index and the retention index systems. J Periodontol. 1967 Nov-Dec;38(6):610-616. doi: 10.1902/jop.1922.214.171.1240.
Alexander SA. Effects of orthodontic attachments on the gingival health of permanent second molars. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1991 Oct;100(4):337-340. doi: 10.1016/0889-5406(91)70071-4.
Condò R, Casaglia A, Condò SG, Cerroni L. Plaque retention on elastomeric ligatures. An in vivo study. Oral Implantol (Rome). 2013 Mar;5(4):92-99.
Sukontapatipark W, el-Agroudi MA, Selliseth NJ, Thunold K, Selvig KA. Bacterial colonization associated with fixed orthodontic appliances. A scanning electron microscopy study. Eur J Orthod. 2001 Oct;23(5):475-484. doi: 10.1093/ejo/23.5.475.
Dubey R, Jalili VP, Garg S. Oral hygiene and gingival status in orthodontic patients. J Pierre Fauchard Acad. 1993 Jun;7(2):43-54.
Ristic M, Vlahovic Svabic M, Sasic M, Zelic O. Clinical and microbiological effects of fixed orthodontic appliances on periodontal tissues in adolescents. Orthod Craniofac Res. 2007 Nov;10(4):187-195. doi: 10.1111/j.1601-6343.2007.00396.x.
Palungwachira P, Tancharoen S, Phruksaniyom C, Klungsaeng S, Srichan R, Kikuchi K, et al. Antioxidant and anti-Inflammatory properties of Anthocyanins extracted from Oryza sativa L. in primary dermal fibroblasts. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2019 Jul;2019:2089817. doi: 10.1155/2019/2089817.
Elkwatehy W. The effect of grape seed extract mouth rinse on the caries activity, dental plaque and gingivitis. Int J Dent Oral Sci. 2020 Dec;7(12):1148-1152. doi: 10.19070/2377-8075-20000228.
Daglia M, Stauder M, Papetti A, Signoretto C, Giusto G, Canepari P, et al. Isolation of red wine components with anti-adhesion and anti-biofilm activity against Streptococcus mutans. Food Chem. 2010 Apr;119(3):1182-1188. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.08.037.