Factors Predicting Depressive Symptoms among Older People in Community in Bali, Indonesia

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Made Dian Shanti Kusuma
Yajai Sitthimongkol
Virapun Wirojratana
Paungpet Kesornsamut


Purpose: To examine the rate of depressive symptoms and factors predicting depressive symptoms among older people in community.

Design: Correlational predictive study.

Methods: The study is descriptive and cross-sectional. Simple random sampling was used to select 177 older people living in Bali, Indonesia. A cognitive assessment was carried out prior to selection. The instruments were self-reported Non-Communicable Diseases, behavioral risk questionnaires including smoking behavior, Body Mass Index, alcohol consumption, physical activity, adverse life events scale, and depression scale. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were employed for statistical analysis.

Main Findings: The findings revealed that approximately 42% of respondents had depressive symptoms. Adverse life events, having more than three Non-Communicable Diseases, and low physical activity were found as significant predictors of depressive symptoms (Odds Ratio = 1.30, 4.41, 4.60, p < .05, respectively). Gender, Body Mass Index, smoking, and alcohol consumption were not found to be significant predictors of depressive symptoms.

Conclusion and recommendations: The findings support that the older people living in community are at risk of depression. Depressive symptoms could be predicted by adverse life events, non-communicable diseases and low physical activities. This research contributes to the community nurses on the promotion of physical activity to those older people with Non-Communicable Diseases and proposes interventions that permit improvements in their psychological health. Community nurses should develop an intervention aiming to prevent depression, through promotion of physical activity in accordance with physical ability, and enhancing coping skills.


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Kusuma, M. D. S. ., Sitthimongkol, Y., Wirojratana, V. ., & Kesornsamut, P. (2020). Factors Predicting Depressive Symptoms among Older People in Community in Bali, Indonesia. Nursing Science Journal of Thailand, 38(4), 62–76. Retrieved from https://he02.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/ns/article/view/242203
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