Effects of the Integration of Nursing Care and Reiki Energy Healing Program on Anxiety and Physiological Changes in Children With Cancer Receiving Chemotherapy

Main Article Content

Papattanan Tharapornphiwat
Busakorn Punthmatharith
Thirachit Chotsampuncharean


     This quasi-experimental study aimed to determine the effects of the integration of nursing care and Reiki energy healing program on anxiety and physiological changes in children with cancer in two tertiary hospitals, Southern of Thailand. Purposive sampling was used to select sample into a control group (n = 20) received the usual nursing care, and an experimental group (n = 20) received the usual nursing care and the integration of nursing care and Reiki energy healing program. The instruments consisted of 1) The Integration of Nursing Care and Reiki Energy Healing Program, 2) The Demographic Data Questionnaire, 3) The Visual Analogue Anxiety Scale, and 4) The Physiological Changes Record Form. The content validity was validated by three experts. Reliability was tested by test-retest, yielding Pearson correlation coefficients of the Visual Analogue Anxiety Scale, the Pulse Record Form, the Systolic Blood Pressure Record Form, and the Diastolic Blood Pressure Record Form of .95, .91, .90, and .87, respectively. Data were analyzed using Chi-square and T-test.
    The results showed that after the experimental group participated in the program, the mean score of anxiety was significantly lower than those of before participating in the program (t = 9.88, p < .001) and the means of physiological changes, including pulse (t = 8.93, p < .001), systolic blood pressure (t = 8.13, p < .001), and diastolic blood pressure (t = 6.77, p < .001) were significantly lower within normal ranges than those of before participating in the program. After participating in the program, the mean score of anxiety in the experimental group was significantly lower than that of the control group (t = 6.32, p < .001) and the means of physiological changes including pulse (t = 3.31, p < .01), systolic blood pressure (t = 2.61, p < .01) and diastolic blood pressure (t = 3.03, p < .01) were significantly lower within normal ranges than those of the control group. Thus, nurses should support the use of the program as an alternative way in promoting health of children with cancer.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Tharapornphiwat, P., Punthmatharith, B., & Chotsampuncharean, T. (2020). Effects of the Integration of Nursing Care and Reiki Energy Healing Program on Anxiety and Physiological Changes in Children With Cancer Receiving Chemotherapy. Journal of Research in Nursing-Midwifery and Health Sciences, 40(3), 66–81. Retrieved from https://he02.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/nur-psu/article/view/246183
Research Articles


1. World Health Organization. Cancer in children [Internet]. [cited 2020 Apr 23]. Available from: https://www.int/news-room/factsheets/detail/cancer-in-children

2. Nation Cancer Institute. Childhood cancers [Internet]. 2019 [Update 2019; cited 2020 Apr 23] Available from: https://www.cancer. gov/types/childhood-cancers

3. Department of Medical Services. New for mass media. [Internet]. 2018 [Update 2018; cited 2018 Dec 25] Available from: http://www.dms.moph. go.th/dmsweb/prnews/prnews29122017091246.pdf

4. Steliarova-Foucher E, Colombet M, Ries LAG, et al. International incidence of childhood cancer 2001-10: A population-based registry study. Lancet Oncol. 2017; 18(6): 719-31.

5. Punthmatharith B, Buddharat U, Wattanasit P. The influencing factors on quality of life of the cancer children in Thailand. Thai Cancer Journal. 2014; 34(1): 3-17. Thai.

6. Compas BE, Desjardins L, Vannatta K, et al. Children and adolescents coping with cancer: self- and parent reports of coping and anxiety/ depression. Health Psychol. 2014; 33(8): 853-61.

7. Nazari B, Bakhshi S, Kaboudi M, et al. A comparison of quality of life, anxiety and depression in children with cancer and healthy children, Kermanshah-Iran. IJP. 2017; 5(7): 5305-14.

8. Li WHC, Chung JOK, Chiu SY. The impact of cancer on children’s physical, emotion, and psychosocial well-being. Cancer Nurs. 2010; 33(1): 47-54. doi: 10.1097/NCC.0b013e3181aaf0fa

9. Punthmatharith B, Buddharat U, Wattanasit P. Quality of life of children with cancer: do caregivers perceive differently. Songkla Med J. 2013; 31(3): 123-35. Thai.

10. Rueangtrakoon S. Psychiatric symptoms and physical diseases in children and adolescents. Bangkok: Reankawkanpim; 2014. Thai.

11. Sukmak W. Mental health and psychosocial nursing 1. MahaSarakham: Mahasarakham University; 2013. Thai.

12. Sithimongkon Y, Kasornsamuth P, Wongsirimas N, et al. Psychiatric nursing. Nakhon Pathom: Scanart; 2016. Thai.

13. Dufresne A, Dugas MA, Samson Y, et al. Do children undergoing cancer procedures under pharmacological sedation still report pain and anxiety? A preliminary study. Pain Med. 2010; 11(2): 215-23.

14. Chatum K. Roles of registered nurses in providing health information for pediatric thyroid cancer patients. Srinagarind Med J. 2012; 27(2): 207-11. Thai.

15. Post-White J, Fitzgerald M, Savik K, et al. Massage therapy for children with cancer. Ped Oncol Nurs. 2009; 26(1): 16-28.

16. Nguyen TN, Nilsson S, Hellstrom AL, et al. Music therapy reduce pain and anxiety in children with cancer undergoing lumbar puncture: A randomized clinical trial. Ped Oncol Nurs. 2010; 27(3): 146-55.

17. Teepapal T. Effect of self-help group on the psychological dimension of quality of life of adolescents with cancer [master’s thesis]. [Songkhla]: Prince of Songkla University; 2014. 138 p. Thai.

18. Joyce J, Herbison GP. Reiki for depression and anxiety. Cochrane DB Syst Rev. 2015; 4: 1-34. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006833.pub2.

19. Demir M, Can G, Celek E. Effect of Reiki on symptom management in oncology. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2013; 14(8): 4931-3. doi: 10.7314/apjcp.2013.14.8.4931

20. Keawpimon P, Jaroonsak Y, Chinnawong T, et al. The effect of Reiki Energy healing and mindfulness meditation program on the human aura and holistic health of Thai nurse students. JBS. 2011; 18(2): 41-60. Thai.

21. Keawpimon P, Muenpet Y, Chunuan S. Experience in using Reiki to take care of selfhealth of women in the south. JBS. 2010; 16(6): 1-20. Thai.

22. Friedman RSC, Burg MM, Miles P, et al. Effect of Reiki on autonomic activity early after acute coronary syndrome. JACC. 2010; 56(12): 995-6.

23. Rokade PB. Release of endomorphine hormone and its effect on our body and mood. Paper presented at the International Conference on Chemical Biological and Environment Science,Bangkok, Thailand; 2011 [cited 2020 Apr 23]. Abstract. Available from: https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Release-of-Endomorphin-Hormone-and-Its-Effects-on-A-Rokade/d9d6a77f113bb866ea1588edf646a60e25ca1755

24. Bowden D, Goddardb L, Gruzelier J. A randomised controlled single-blind trial of the effects of Reiki and positive imagery on wellbeing and salivary cortisol. BRB. 2010; 81(1): 66–72. doi: 10.1016/j.brainresbull.2009.10.002

25. Birocco N, Guillame C, Storto S, et al. The effects of Reiki therapy on pain and anxiety in patients attending a day oncology and infusion services unit. Am J Hosp Palliat Care. 2011; 29(4): 290-4. doi: 10.1177/1049909111420859.

26. Bowden D, Goddard L, Gruzelier J. A randomized controlled single-blind trial of the efficacy of Reiki at benefitting mood and wellbeing. Evid Based Complement Med. 2011; 1-8. doi: 10.1155/2011/381862

27. Richeson EN, Spross JA, Lutz K, et al. Effects of Reiki on anxiety, depression, pain, and physiological factors in communitydwelling older adults. Res Gerontol Nurs. 2010; 3(3): 187-99. doi: 10.3928/19404921-20100601-01

28. Salles LF, Vannucci L, Salles A, et al. The effect of Reiki on blood hypertension. Acta Paulista de Enfermagem. 2014; 27(5): 479-84. doi: 10.1590/1982-0194201400078

29. Rodriguez LD, Morales MA, Villanueva IC, et al. The application of Reiki in nurses diagnosed with burnout syndrome has beneficial effects on concentration of salivary IgA and blood pressure. Rev Lat Am Enfermagem. 2011; 19(5): 1132-8. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0104-11692011000500010

30. Bukowski EL, Berardi D. Reiki brief report: using Reiki to reduce stress levels in a nineyear-old child. Explore(NY). 2014; 10(4): 253-5. doi: 10.1016/j.explore.2014.02.007

31. Usui M, Petter FA, Editors. The original Reiki handbook of Dr. Mikao. Aitrang, Germany: Lotus Press; 1999.

32. Sukmak W. Communication and relationship for therapy. MahaSarakham: Mahasarakham University; 2014. Thai.

33. Miles P, True G. Reiki-review of a biofield therapy history, theory, practice, and research. Altern Therapies. 2003; 9(2): 62-72.

34. Juangpanich U, Onbunreang J, lunlud J, et al. Effect of music therapy on anxiety and pain in cancer patients. J Nur Association Thailand, North-Eastern Division. 2012; 30(1): 46-52. Thai.

35. Soper DS. Effect size (Cohen’s d) calculator for a student t-test [Software] [Internet]. [cited 2020 Apr 23]. Available from https://www.danielsoper.com/statcalc/calculator.aspx?id=48

36. Soper DS. A-priori sample size calculator for student t-tests [Software] [Internet]. [cited 2020 April 23]. Available from https://www.da nielsoper.com/statcalc/calculator.aspx?id=47

37. Aitken RCB. Measurement of feelings using Visual Analogue Scales. Proc roy Soc Med. 1969; 62: 989-93.

38. Chieng YJS, Chan WCS, Klainin-Yobas P, et al. Perioperative anxiety and postoperative pain in children and adolescents undergoing elective surgical procedures: a quantitative systematic review. JAN. 2013; 70(2): 243-55.

39. Schneller LE. (2010). Observations and vital signs [Internet]. [cited 2020 Apr 23]. Available from: http://connect.jbiconnectplus.org/ViewPdf.aspx?0=4034&1=8.

40. Chotsamphancharoen T, Sriphornsawan P. Clinical practice guideline: Chemotherapy services network for children with cancer patients in the south. Songkhla: Chanmueangkanpim; 2012. Thai.

41. Dupius LL, Milne-Wren C, Cassidy M, et al. Symptom assessment in children receiving cancer therapy: the parent’s perspective. Supportive Care in Cancer. 2010; 18(3): 281-99.

42. Keawpimon P, Krisjaroen S, Pongpaibool P, et al. The complete report on the development of mental health promotion for university students research, 2014. Songkhla: Kcopy; 2014. Thai.

43. Lupien SJ, Maheu F, Tu M, et al. The effects of stress and stress hormones on human cognition: implications for the field brain and cognition. Brain and Cognition. 2007; 65(3): 209-37. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2007.02.007.