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The objectives of this descriptive research were to study knowledge on diabetic diet and food consumption behaviors during Ramadan fasting and relationships between knowledge and food consumption behaviors, and to compare health status in terms of weight, body mass index, and blood sugar levels before and during Ramadan fasting. The samples were 102 Muslim patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, who received services from the Diabetes Clinic of Yala Hospital during Ramadan month. The samples were selected by systematic random sampling. The data were collected through interview questionnaires, and from medical records. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistic, Chi-square test and Paired t-test. The results found that most of the samples were female aged 50-69 years and had body mass index at an obese level. There were 46.10% of the samples who had knowledge on diabetic diet during Ramadan fasting at a moderate level, and similar proportions of the rest who had low and high level of knowledge. About threefourths of them had food consumption behaviors during Ramadan fasting at a moderate level, followed with a good level, without an improved level. No relationship was found between knowledge and food consumption behaviors (p > .05). The results found a decrease in weight and body mass index during Ramadan fasting (p < .01), but blood glucose level was not significantly changed (p > .05). It is recommended to improve nutrition education service for Muslim diabetic patients before Ramadan fasting. Further studies on health status during Ramadan fasting should be done.
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