Factors Related to Physical Activity Among Pregnant Women

Main Article Content

Sureeporn Kritcharoen
Kanjanee Phon-In
Janpaphat Kruekaew Duenke
Mingkamon Uttasuradee


Objective: The objective of this descriptive research is to study physical activity during pregnancy and the relationship between age, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), education level, number of pregnancies, and income and physical activity during pregnancy. The sample consist of 300 pregnant women in Songkhla and Phatthalung provinces. Methods: Data collection was carried out using a physical activity for pregnant women questionnaire. The questionnaire contains 4 domains of physical activity including household activity, transportation activity, occupational activity, and leisure-time/exercise activity. Physical activity was calculated by number of time multiple by number of days had each physical activity during the past 7 days. Pregnant women who had physical activity less than 2.5 hours/week were considered as insufficient physical activity. The content validity of the questionnaire was examined by 3 experts. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Chi-Square Test. Results: The result showed that 20.70% of pregnant women had insufficient physical activity. Age, pre-pregnancy BMI, educational level, number of pregnancies were not significantly associated with physical activity of pregnant women. Conclusion: Pregnant women who have insufficient physical activities should have some support in order to have adequate physical activity.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Kritcharoen, S. ., Phon-In, K. ., Kruekaew Duenke, J. ., & Uttasuradee, M. . (2021). Factors Related to Physical Activity Among Pregnant Women. Journal of Research in Nursing-Midwifery and Health Sciences, 41(4), 50–59. Retrieved from https://he02.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/nur-psu/article/view/252525
Research Articles


WHO. Physical activity. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2018.

The committee of master plan for promoting national physical activity. Master plan for promoting national physical activity (A.D. 2018-2030). Bangkok: NC Concepts Ltd; 2018. Thai.

Garland M. Physical activity during pregnancy: A prescription for improved perinatal outcomes. J Nurse Pract. 2017: 13(1): 54-8. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nurpra.2016.07.005.

Avila-Quintana L, Ariza-Egea S, Llanose-Gonzalez B, et al. Association between socio-environmental factors and the practice of physical activity in pregnant women: A cross-sectional study. Rev Colomb Obstet Ginecol. 2018; 69(1): 32-41. doi: https://doi.org/10.18597/rcog.3004.

Bahadoran P, Mohamadirizi S. The study of physical activity and some relative factors in referred pregnant women to Isfahan Health-Care Centers and Shahid Beheshti Hospital. J Edu Health Promot. 2015; 4: 1-4. doi: 10.4103/2277-9531.171815.

Meander L, lindqvist M, Mogren I, et al. Physical activity and sedentary time during pregnancy and associations with maternal and fetal health outcomes: An epidemiological study. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2021; 21(1): 166. doi: 10.1186/s12884-021-03627-6.

Adeniyi AF, Ogwumike OO, Osinike CI. Physical activity and energy expenditure: Findings from the Ibadan pregnant women’s survey. Afr J Reprod Health. 2014; 18(2): 117-26.

Morales-Suarez-Varela M, Clemente-Bosch E, Peraita-Costa I, et al. Maternal physical activity during pregnancy and the effect on the mother and newborn: A systematic review. J Phys Act Health. 2020; 18(1): 130-47. doi: 10.1123/jpah.2019-0348.

Cid M. Gonzalez M. Potential benefits of physical activity during pregnancy for the reduction of gestational diabetes prevalence and oxidative stress. Early Hum Dev. 2016; 94: 57-62. doi: 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2016.01.007.

Thomson J, Tussing-Humphreys L, Goodman M, et al. Physical activity changes during pregnancy in a comparative impact trial. Am J Health Behav. 2016; 40(6): 685-96. doi: 10.5993/AJHB.40.6.1.

Okafor UB, Goon DT. Physical activity and exercise during pregnancy in Africa: A review of the literature. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2020; 20(1): 732. doi: 10.1186/s12884-020-03439-0.

Hanlon C, Khoo S, Morris T, et al. Factors influencing women in physical activity programs in Malasia. Health Promot Int. 2019; 34(3): 389-99. doi: 10.1093/heapro/dax093.

Coll CVN, Domingues MR, Goncalves H, et al. Perceived barriers to leisure-time physical activity during pregnancy: A literature review of quantitative and qualitative evidence. J Sci Med Sport. 2017; 20(1): 17-25. doi: 10.1016/j.jsams.2016.06.007.

Nascimento SL, Surita FG, Godoy AC, et al. Physical activity patterns and factors related to exercise during

pregnancy: A cross sectional study. PLoS One. 2015; 10(6): e0128953. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0128953.

Supavititpatana B, Phancharoenworakul K, Yeo SA, et al. Using theory of planned behavior to predict physical activity intention among pregnant Thais. Pacific Rim Int J Nurs Res. 2012; 16(3): 192-205. Thai.

Liangruenrom N, Suttikasem K, Craike M, et al. Physical activity and sedentary behavior research in Thailand: A systematic scoping review. BMC Public health. 2018: 18(1): 733. doi: 10.1186/s12889-018-5643-y.

Santos PC, Abreu S, Moreira C, et al. Physical activity patterns during pregnancy in a sample of Portuguese women: A longitudinal prospective study. Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2016; 18(3): e22455. doi: 10.5812/ircmj.22455.

Winichagoon P, Pongcharoen T, Rojroongwasinkul N, et al. Promoting early life nutrition intervention within maternal and child health care (1st year) [Internet]. Bangkok: Health Systems Research Institute; 2018 [cited 2019 Apr 9]. Available from: http://kb.hsri.or.th/dspace/handle/11228/4867.

Mottola MF, Davenport MH, Ruchat S-M, et al. 2019 Canadian guideline for physical activity throughout

pregnancy. Br J Sports Med. 2018; 52(21): 1339-46. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2018-100056.

Kirk RE. Experimental designs: Procedures for the behavioral science. 3 rd ed. Boston: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company; 1995.

Hoodhoy Z, Qureshi RN, Iqbal R, et al. Household chores as the main source of physical activity: Perceptives of pregnant Pakistani women. J Pak Med Assoc. 2018; 68(4): 565-9.

Gebregziabher D, Berhe H, Kassa M, et al. Level of physical activity and associated factors during pregnancy among women who gave birth in Public Zonal Hospitals of Tigray. BMC Res Notes. 2019; 12(454): 1-6. doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13104-019-4496-5.

Lawan A, Awotidebe AW, Oyeyemi AL, et al. Relationship between physical activity and health related quality of life among pregnant women. Afr J Reprod Health. 2018; 22(3): 80-9. doi: 10.29063/ajrh2018/v22i3.9.

Wijesiriwardana WS, Gunawardena NS. Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding antenatal exercises among pregnant mothers attending De Soyza Maternity Hospital Colombo. Sri Lanka Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 2015; 37(4): 65-71. doi: 10.4038/SLJOG.V37I4.7773.

Nichols L, Chang T, McKee K, et al. Beliefs and myths about exercise during pregnancy among pregnant youth: A qualitative study. J Adolesc Health. 2018; 62(2): S58-9. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2017.11.119.

Steinl GK, Whisner CM, Pressman EK, et al. Patterns and correlates of self-reported physical activity in a cohort of racially diverse pregnant adolescents. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2019; 32(1): 51-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jpag.2018.09.003.

Silva SG, Evenson KR, Silva KR, et al. Correlates of accelerometer-assessed physical activity in pregnancy-The 2015 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2018; 28(8): 1934-45. doi: 10.1111/sms.13083.

Zhang Y, Dong S, Zuo J, et al. Physical activity level of urban pregnant women in Tianjin, China: A cross-sectional study. PLoS One. 2014; 9(10): 1-8. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0109624

Flannery C, Dahly D, Byrne M, et al. Social, biological, behavioral and psychological factors related to physical activity during early pregnancy in the screening for pregnancy endpoints (Cork, Ireland) cohort study. BMJ Open. 2019; 9(6): 1-8. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-025003.

Put W-M, Chuang S-l, Chan L-W. Physical activity in pregnancy: Attitudes and practices in Hong Kong Chinese women. HKJGOM. 2015; 15(2): 138-47.

Haruna M, Matsuzaki M, Shiraishi M, et al. Physical exercise during pregnancy and its related factors: An observation study in Japan. Asian/Pacific Island Nursing Journal. 2017; 2(4): 166-73.

Merkx A, Ausems M, Bude L, et al. Factors affecting perceived change in physical activity in pregnancy.

Midwifery. 2017; 51: 16-23. doi: 10.1016/j.midw.2017.05.007.

Alvis ML, Morris CE, Garrard TL, et al. Educational brochures influence beliefs and knowledge regarding exercise during pregnancy: A pilot study. Int J Exerc Sci. 2019; 12(3): 581-9.