Main Article Content
Background: Adolescent pregnancy is a major health problem which affects not only health of the girl and her babies, but also hinders social and economic development both in the short and long term aspects.
Objective: To study factors associated with adolescent pregnancy.
Setting: Thakhantho district, Kalasin Province, Thailand
Material and Method: The case control study of 170 adolescent girls aged 10- 19 years old (75 cases and 75 controls). Cases and controls were matched by age and living nearby. Data was collected by self-administrated questionnaires during 1st June to 30th November 2013. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, bivariate analysis (Pearson chi-squaretest, Fischer’s exact test, and Mann Whitney U test), and multiple logistic regression analysis. The statistical significance was set at p-value < 0.05.
Results: The results of bivariate analysis showed that factors which were significantly associated with adolescent pregnancy were age, education, occupation, parental marital status, having pregnant or married friends, and high sexual risk behavior. On the other hand, knowledge about sex, attitude towards sex, and levels of friend’s acceptance had no statistically significant association with adolescent pregnancy. When multiple logistic regression analysis was applied, factors which still had significant association with adolescent pregnancy included occupation (other than student) (OR = 3.0, 95%CI 1.4 - 6.6), parental marital status (separated or divorced) (OR = 3.5, 95%CI 1.3 - 9.1), and having pregnant friends (OR = 2.9, 95%CI 1.1 - 7.9).
Conclusion: Adolescent pregnancy is associated with interrelated multidisciplinary factors. Delaying adolescent marriage, maintaining adolescent studying in school, and increasing family attachment could reduce the rate of adolescent pregnancy.
World Health Organization. Adolescent pregnancy – unmet needs and undone deeds: a review of the literature and programmes. Geneva: WHO; 2007.
Shah IH, Say L. Maternal mortality and maternity care from 1990 to 2005: uneven but important gains. Reprod Health Matters. 2007;15(30):17-27.
World Health Organization. 10 facts on adolescent health. Geneva: WHO; 2008.
World Health Organization. Mortality estimates by course, age and sex for the year 2008. Geneva: WHO; 2011.
Kershaw TS, Niccolai LM, Ickovics JR, Lewis JB, Meade CS, Ethier KA. Short and long-term impact of adolescent pregnancy on postpartum contraceptive use: implications for prevention of repeat pregnancy. J Adolesc Health. 2003;33(5):359-68.
Chantrapanichkul P, Chawanpaiboon S. Adverse pregnancy outcomes in cases involving extremely young maternal age. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2013;120(2):160-4. doi:10.1016/j.ijgo.2012.08.024.
Omar K, Hasim S, Muhammad NA, Jaffar A, Hashim SM, Siraj HH. Adolescent pregnancy outcomes and risk factors in Malaysia. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2010;111(3):220-3. doi:10.1016/j.ijgo.2010.06.023.
Molina RC, Roca CG, Zamorano JS, Araya EG. Family planning and adolescent pregnancy. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2010;24(2):209-22. doi:10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2009.09.008.
Svoboda DV, Shaw TV, Barth RP, Bright CL. Pregnancy and parenting among youth in foster care: a review. Child Youth Serv Rev. 2012;34(5), 867-75.
Haamid F, Holland-Hall C. Overview of sexually transmitted infections in adolescents. Adolesc Med State Art Rev. 2012;23(1):73-94.
Prasartkul P, Chamratrithirong A, Bennett A, Jitwatanapataya L, Isarabhakdi P. Rural adolescent sexuality and the determinants of provincial urban premarital adolescent sex. IPSR Publication. Mahidol University, 1987.
Rasamimari A, Dancy B, Talashek M, Park CG. Predictors of sexual behaviors among Thai young adults. J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care. 2007;18(6):13-21.
Department of Health. Fact sheet “Sexual risk behaviors and teenage pregnancy” 2012. (Cited 2012 July) https://rh.anamai.moph.go.th/home.html
Boonyathan W. Factors associated with adolescent pregnancy among adolescent primigavida attending antenatal care clinic at Samutsakhon Hospital. Dissertation. Mahidol University; 2009.
Bonell C, Allen E, Strange V, et al. The effect of dislike of school on risk of teenage pregnancy: testing of hypotheses using longitudinal data from a randomised trial of sex education. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2005;59(3):223-30.
Promwong U. Factors associated with pregnancy among primigravida adolescents at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital; 2009.
Madkour AS, Farhat T, Halpern CT, Godeau E, Gabhainn SN. Early adolescent sexual initiation as a problem behavior: a comparative study of five nations. J Adolesc Health. 2010;47(4):389-98. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2010.02.008.
Devine S, Bull S, Dreisbach S, Shlay J. Enhancing a Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program with text messaging: engaging minority youth to develop TOP ® Plus Text. J Adolesc Health. 2014;54(3 Suppl):S78-83. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2013.12.005.
Cavazos-Rehg PA, Spitznagel EL, Krauss MJ, et al. Understanding adolescent parenthood from a multisystemic perspective. J Adolesc Health. 2010;46(6):525-31. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2009.11.209.
Chandra-Mouli V, Camacho AV, Michaud PA. WHO guidelines on preventing early pregnancy and poor reproductive outcomes among adolescents in developing countries. J Adolesc Health. 2013;52(5):517-22. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2013.03.002.