A Development of the Self-directed Learning Model to Develop Transcul¬tural Nursing Competencies for Nursing Students, Faculty of Nursing Burapha University

Main Article Content

Laddawan Puttaruksa
Jinjutha Chaisena Dallas
Wanita Kwansumran


The research aimed to create and evaluate the feasibility of a self-directed learning model to develop transcultural nursing competencies for nursing students. There were two research procedures. Firstly, a model was developed by studying relevant research documents in order to determine the model framework and examining the quality of the model, model manual and tools used for data collection by 6 experts. Secondly, the effectiveness of the model was assessed. The sample consisted of 40 nursing students in academic year 2018. A one group pre-test and post-test design was applied to this study. Statistics were used for the data analysis included median, interquartile range, mean, standard deviation, correlation coefficient and dependent t-tests. The study found that during the model formulation phase, the experts agreed to use 4 steps of learning: assessing readiness, developing knowledge, developing awareness and developing skills of caring for clients, with a median of 4.10-4.68 and a quartile range of .50-.96. The effectiveness index of the model was found higher than the criteria (.58). The participants in the program had a significantly higher mean score in self-directed learning than before the program (t39=-7.406, p<.001). The sample demonstrated a significantly higher score in the cultural competencies of knowledge, awareness, and cultural skills, after participation in the program (P<.05). Self-directed learning was positively related with awareness and cultural skills with statistical significance at the level of .001 (r=.712 and .774, respectively). The research shows that this model could promote self-directed learning which can lead to the development of transcultural nursing competencies of nursing students.

Keywords: transcultural nursing competencies; self-directed learning; research and development


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Puttaruksa L, Chaisena Dallas J, Kwansumran W. A Development of the Self-directed Learning Model to Develop Transcul¬tural Nursing Competencies for Nursing Students, Faculty of Nursing Burapha University. NJPH (วารสาร พ.ส.) [Internet]. 2020 Apr. 30 [cited 2022 Dec. 3];30(1):161-73. Available from: https://he02.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/tnaph/article/view/241501


1. Kaewanuchit C, Thongpoon K, Chaikan A. Towards primary health care reforms in 21st century. The Public Health Journal of Burapha University 2014;9:108-20. (in Thai)

2. Arayanitkul B. The concept of teaching and learning to promote cultural competencies of nursing students. Journal of the Army Nurses 2014;15(3):49-57. (in Thai)

3. Campinha-Bacote J. The Process of Cultural Competence in the Delivery of Healthcare Services. Cultural Competence in the Process of Becoming; Not a State of Being [internet],2014 (cited on January 29, 2020) Available from: http://www. Tranculturalcare.net/cultural_ Competence_Model.htm. 2014.

4. Giger JN, Davidhizar R, Purnell L, Harden J, Phillips J, Strickland O. American academy of nursing expert panel report: developing cultural competence to eliminate health disparities in ethnic minorities and other vulnerable population. Journal of Transcultural Nursing 2007;18(2):95-102.

5. Faculty of Nursing Burapha University. Student handbook, bachelor of nursing curriculum, academic year 2017. Chonburi. 2017. (in Thai)

6. Chonjaroen H. Factors related to transcultural nursing competence of nurse practitioners working with Muslim people. [mater thesis]. Prathumthani. Thammasat university. 2016 (in Thai)
7. Foronda C. A concept analysis of cultural sensitivity. Journal of Transcultural Nursing 2008;19(3):207-12.

8. Khemmanee T. Teaching styles, various options. Bangkok: Chulalongkorn University. 2009. (in Thai)

9. Leininger M. Cultural care theory: A major contribution to advance transcultural nursing knowledge and practices. Journal of Transcultural Nursing 2002;13:189-92.

10. Songwatana P, Hirunchoonha S, Saengchan H, Petchpichetchian W, Khampalikhit S. Curriculum development for cultural competency promotion of students. Nursing. Research report, Faculty of Nursing. Prince of Songkla University Songkhla. 2009. (in Thai)

11. Knowles M S. Self-directed Learning: a duide for learner and teachers. Chicago: Association Press Follett; 1975.

12. Sutthirat C. 80 Innovative learning management that focuses on learners. Bangkok: Danex Inter Corporation Ltd. 2010. (in Thai)

13. Siriphan S, Choodam S. A development of an instructional model emphasizing cultural competency of nursing students for antenatal care in three Southern border provinces of Thailand. Nursing Journal of the Ministry of Public Health 2015;25:54-69. (in Thai)

14. Siriphan S, Songwanthana P. Teaching methods for Enhancing Cultural Competency of Nursing Students Based on Theoretical Concepts of Campinha-Bacote. Princess of Naradhiwas University Journal 2014;6:146-57. (in Thai)

15. Turner K, Rakkwamsuk S, Ruanjaiman J, Sukgaroen J, Suriyanimiitsuk T. The Pedagogical Situation Fostering 21st Century Skills of Nursing Students at Boromarajonani College of Nursing, Chon Buri. Nursing Journal of the Ministry of Public Health 2016;26:128-41. (in Thai)

16. Gallagher RW. A meta-analysis of cultural competence education in professional nurses and nursing students. [Doctoral thesis], University of South Florida; 2011.

17. Dudus K I, Cultural competence: an evolutional concept analysis. Nursing Education Perspectives 2012;33(5):317-21.

18. Songwathana P, Siriphan S .Thai nurses’ cultural competency in caring for clients living in a multicultural setting. Pacific Rim International Journal of Nursing Research, 2015;19(1):19-31.

19. McQuilkin D. Transcultural nursing clinical education: A systemic review of the literature since 2005 with recommendations for international immersion clinical courses. [Doctoral thesis], University of South Carolina; 2012.

20. Chen J, Wang Y. Cultural competence experiences which Chinese nurses have in Finland. degree programe in Nursing. [Bachelor thesis] Laurea University of Applied Sciences Otaniemi, Findland. (cited on January 29, 2020) Available from ttps://www.theseus.fi/handle/10024/87039; 2015.